INT248

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 137
Total Number 151
Disease Relevance 49.25
Pain Relevance 32.92

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (GH1) extracellular region (GH1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pituitary 14
liver 8
plasma 6
cartilage 4
somatotrope 4
GH1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Clonidine 242 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Bioavailability 47 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dexamethasone 45 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 34 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 22 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain threshold 10 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 381 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 399 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Sumatriptan 6 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 1 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Growth Problems 889 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 194 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 122 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 51 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Acromegaly 543 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 127 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Galactorrhea 35 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Uremia 5 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 584 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 114 99.74 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Stimulation of GH release is a well-known effect of clonidine in man.
Positive_regulation (Stimulation) of Localization (release) of GH associated with clonidine
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 1988 Journal Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3243343 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.51
Nowadays, GHRPs are the most effective GH-secretagogues known and could be used profitably in humans with GH hyposecretory disturbances to promote a pattern of GH secretion that mimics physiology in a better way than the exogenously administered GH.
Positive_regulation (promote) of Localization (secretion) of GH
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9446709 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
It is concluded that sumatriptan selectively increases GH secretion in man, but the exact nature of the receptors involved is not yet known.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Localization (secretion) of GH associated with sumatriptan
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 8035909 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.51
After placebo pretreatment, clonidine (0.15 mg iv infused over 20 min) significantly stimulated GH secretion: the mean serum GH level rose from a basal level of 4.7 +/- 1.1 (+/- SEM) ng/ml to a maximum of 10.8 +/- 1.6 ng/ml (P less than 0.025).
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of Localization (secretion) of GH associated with clonidine
4) Confidence 0.69 Published 1983 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 6841564 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.51
Continuous GRF administration led to increased episodic GH secretion, by augmenting GH peak amplitude, although peak frequency was not modified.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of GH
5) Confidence 0.68 Published 1991 Journal Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) Section Body Doc Link 1934527 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Pretreatment with clonidine clearly changed the pattern of GH release during GRF infusion: the amount of GH secreted was significantly higher, the number of GH peaks significantly increased, and almost all the GH was secreted within them.
Positive_regulation (changed) of Localization (release) of GH
6) Confidence 0.68 Published 1991 Journal Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) Section Body Doc Link 1934527 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This indicates that alpha-adrenergic pathways stimulate GH secretion through a non-GRF-dependent mechanism in normal human subjects.
Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (secretion) of GH
7) Confidence 0.68 Published 1988 Journal Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) Section Abstract Doc Link 2855221 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
An absence of hypothalamic control was evident because clonidine did not stimulate GH release.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (release) of GH associated with clonidine
8) Confidence 0.68 Published 1993 Journal Neuroendocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 8284031 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.45
Clonidine, a central alpha-adrenergic agent and prophylactic antimigraine drug is known to stimulate human growth hormone (HGH) release and to suppress cortisol secretion.
Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (release) of HGH associated with cluster headache and clonidine
9) Confidence 0.67 Published 1984 Journal Neuropsychobiology Section Abstract Doc Link 6527749 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.48
Failure of naloxone to influence plasma growth hormone, prolactin, and cortisol secretions induced by insulin hypoglycemia.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretions) of growth hormone in plasma associated with hypoglycemia and narcan
10) Confidence 0.67 Published 1980 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Title Doc Link 6987258 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.41
This new stimulus showed a pattern similar to that of the hypothalamic stimuli, but clearly different with respect to the pituitary one (GHRH), suggesting that corticoids activate GH secretion by acting at hypothalamic level.
Positive_regulation (activate) of Localization (secretion) of GH in pituitary
11) Confidence 0.67 Published 1992 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 1639956 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.23
Corticoid-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion in GH-deficient and normal children.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretion) of GH
12) Confidence 0.67 Published 1992 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Title Doc Link 1639956 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.11
It is well known that the acute administration of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist commonly used as an antihypertensive drug, stimulates GH secretion, likely via hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) release.
Spec (likely) Positive_regulation (stimulates) of Localization (secretion) of GH associated with agonist and clonidine
13) Confidence 0.66 Published 1991 Journal Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1907565 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.44
Atropine completely blocked exercise-induced GH secretion (2 +/- 0.9 ng/ml).
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (secretion) of GH
14) Confidence 0.65 Published 1984 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 6746865 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.46
However, the evaluation of the physiological significance of D-induced GH release in humans requires further study.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of GH
15) Confidence 0.65 Published 1983 Journal Neuroendocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 6633818 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.29
Oral clonidine administration or insulin-induced hypoglycemia may enhance GH secretion through alpha 2-adrenergic stimulation in man.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (enhance) of Localization (secretion) of GH associated with hypoglycemia and clonidine
16) Confidence 0.61 Published 1988 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 2826526 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.32
GH secretion was significantly increased after 2 and 4 mg BS 100-141 and 0.30 mg clonidine.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of GH associated with clonidine
17) Confidence 0.58 Published 1977 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 20551 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20
However, the administration of hpGRF to both immature and adult birds made refractory to TRH challenge was followed by increased GH secretion and vice versa.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of GH
18) Confidence 0.56 Published 1985 Journal Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3926600 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Cyproheptadine did not have any significant effect on dental pain threshold elevations, although it suppressed the exercise-induced GH release.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of GH associated with pain threshold
19) Confidence 0.56 Published 1986 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 3774237 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.62
Paradoxically, the OGTT can stimulate GH secretion in about 10% of patients with acromegaly.


Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (secretion) of GH associated with acromegaly
20) Confidence 0.55 Published 2008 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2459162 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.04

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