INT252

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Context Info
Confidence 0.80
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 529
Total Number 559
Disease Relevance 227.40
Pain Relevance 122.05

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (GH1) extracellular region (GH1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pituitary 80
plasma 15
somatotrope 9
blood 8
body 6
GH1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Somatostatin 1516 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 936 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 755 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 501 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 146 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 1404 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Eae 120 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 177 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 34 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 118 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Acromegaly 2669 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Adenoma 1670 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 1296 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Prolactinoma 646 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 354 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Gigantism 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pituitary Cancer 2282 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 3468 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Carcinoma 171 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 410 99.92 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Combined administration of CLON and PD had an additive effect on GH release (peak: 27.5 +/- 4.5 ng/ml; AUC: 920.8 +/- 153.3 ng/ml/h; p less than 0.005 vs CLON and PD alone).
Localization (release) of GH associated with clonidine
1) Confidence 0.80 Published 1989 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 2754188 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.95
Acute administration of pyridostigmine and clonidine has an additive stimulatory effect on GH release in normal children.
Localization (release) of GH associated with clonidine
2) Confidence 0.80 Published 1989 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Title Doc Link 2754188 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.89
In conclusion, presented data show that: i) CLON and PD have similar GH-releasing effect in normal children; ii) The additive stimulatory effect on GH release exerted by acute combined administration of CLON and PD agrees with the hypothesized different mechanism of action of these two drugs; iii) A therapeutic association of CLON and PD may be envisaged in the treatment of some children of short stature.
Localization (release) of GH associated with growth problems and clonidine
3) Confidence 0.80 Published 1989 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 2754188 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.94
It has been shown in humans that both alpha 2-adrenoceptor activation by clonidine (CLON) and cholinergic enhancement by pyridostigmine (PD) have a clear-cut stimulatory effect on GH release.
Localization (release) of GH associated with clonidine
4) Confidence 0.80 Published 1989 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 2754188 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.62
Patients achieved similar growth velocities when sustained release GH was given once or twice monthly.
Localization (release) of GH
5) Confidence 0.80 Published 2001 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 11600528 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.08
The aim of this work is to study GH release in response to alpha-2 adrenoceptors stimulation by clonidine in obesity. 12 volunteer obese subjects were studied. 10 normal weight subjects, sex and age matched, were controls.
Localization (release) of GH associated with obesity and clonidine
6) Confidence 0.80 Published 1988 Journal Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3243343 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.58
Stimulation of GH release is a well-known effect of clonidine in man.
Localization (release) of GH associated with clonidine
7) Confidence 0.80 Published 1988 Journal Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3243343 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.51
Obesity is characterized by an impairment of GH release in response to various stimuli.
Localization (release) of GH associated with obesity
8) Confidence 0.80 Published 1988 Journal Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3243343 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.57
The impairment of GH release after clonidine in obese subjects might be in a reduced serotonin release or in a failure of the hypothalamic-pituitary system to stimulate plasma GH caused by a diminished GH releasing factor stimulatory effect or by an excessive endorphin or somatostatin secretion in obesity.
Localization (release) of GH in plasma associated with obesity, somatostatin, serotonin and clonidine
9) Confidence 0.80 Published 1988 Journal Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3243343 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.80
There is evidence that dopamine and norepinephrine modulate the secretion of GH.
Localization (secretion) of GH associated with dopamine
10) Confidence 0.80 Published 1988 Journal Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3243343 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.50
Many years before native GHRH had been isolated and sequenced, the synthesis of an enkephalin analog, devoid of any opioid activity but capable of specifically releasing GH from in vitro pituitaries, prompted the design of a number of structurally interrelated GHRPs with improved GH-releasing activity.
Localization (releasing) of GH associated with enkephalin and opioid
11) Confidence 0.80 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9446709 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20
Nowadays, GHRPs are the most effective GH-secretagogues known and could be used profitably in humans with GH hyposecretory disturbances to promote a pattern of GH secretion that mimics physiology in a better way than the exogenously administered GH.
Localization (secretion) of GH
12) Confidence 0.80 Published 1997 Journal Pharmacol. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9446709 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
After pre-treatment with cyproheptadine, an anti-serotoninergic drug known to inhibit GH secretion, the mean integrated sumatriptan-induced GH response decreased from 14.8 +/- 3.9 muI/l*hr to 3.7 +/- 1.7 mIU/l*hr.
Localization (secretion) of GH associated with sumatriptan
13) Confidence 0.80 Published 1994 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 8035909 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.52
It is concluded that sumatriptan selectively increases GH secretion in man, but the exact nature of the receptors involved is not yet known.
Localization (secretion) of GH associated with sumatriptan
14) Confidence 0.80 Published 1994 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 8035909 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.51
These tests both produced a wide variation in GH response in normal volunteers, considerable GH release following hp GRF 1-44 amide but little after clonidine in idiopathic GH deficiency, and indistinguishable, negligible responses in patients with craniopharyngiomas and pituitary tumours associated with GH deficiency.
Localization (release) of GH in pituitary associated with craniopharyngioma, pituitary cancer and clonidine
15) Confidence 0.79 Published 1984 Journal Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) Section Abstract Doc Link 6432378 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.19
After placebo pretreatment, clonidine (0.15 mg iv infused over 20 min) significantly stimulated GH secretion: the mean serum GH level rose from a basal level of 4.7 +/- 1.1 (+/- SEM) ng/ml to a maximum of 10.8 +/- 1.6 ng/ml (P less than 0.025).
Localization (secretion) of GH associated with clonidine
16) Confidence 0.79 Published 1983 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 6841564 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.50
It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of diazepam on human GH secretion is mediated via inhibition of dopaminergic transmission, whereas the alpha-adrenergic control of GH release is not affected.
Localization (release) of GH
17) Confidence 0.79 Published 1983 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 6841564 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.50
To establish whether diazepam affects the alpha-adrenergic regulation of GH secretion, the GH response to clonidine (an alpha-agonist) was investigated in seven volunteers after placebo and diazepam premedications.
Localization (secretion) of GH associated with agonist and clonidine
18) Confidence 0.79 Published 1983 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 6841564 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
In addition, growth hormone (GH) secretion and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I levels fall.
Localization (secretion) of GH
19) Confidence 0.79 Published 2004 Journal Treat Endocrinol Section Abstract Doc Link 16026102 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.06
Pretreatment with clonidine clearly changed the pattern of GH release during GRF infusion: the amount of GH secreted was significantly higher, the number of GH peaks significantly increased, and almost all the GH was secreted within them.
Localization (release) of GH
20) Confidence 0.79 Published 1991 Journal Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) Section Body Doc Link 1934527 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

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