INT2555

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1978
Last Reported 2008
Negated 4
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 116
Total Number 120
Disease Relevance 24.35
Pain Relevance 119.73

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal cord 22
amygdala 14
striatum 8
interneurons 8
nucleus accumbens 8
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 828 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 112 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 80 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 57 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 56 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 52 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 32 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dorsal root ganglion 26 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 21 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
bradykinin 19 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Ganglion Cysts 28 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 157 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 42 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 30 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 40 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 20 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 24 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 50 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Herpes Simplex Virus 6 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 43 97.00 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The rate of release of enkephalin from rat striatal slices increased 7--10 fold in response to depolarization by 50 mM potassium ions in vitro.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1978 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 639850 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.37
Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures produce an increased release of IR-Met-enkephalin from rat striatum in vitro.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in striatum associated with convulsion and enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1985 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 4075166 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.75
The striatal slices of acute group and kindling group I displayed a significant increase in the evoked release of IR-Met-enkephalin.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1985 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 4075166 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.83
Furthermore, in vivo, electrical stimulation of the rat caudo-putamen enhanced enkephalin release in the pallidum.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in pallidum associated with enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.69 Published 1981 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 7266940 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Local perfusion with veratrine also enhanced enkephalin release.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Localization (release) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 1981 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 7266940 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Formalin-induced and thermal but not mechanical stimuli increased the "tonic" release of immunoreactive Met-enkephalin from this nucleus.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of Met-enkephalin in nucleus associated with enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.69 Published 1984 Journal Brain Res. Bull. Section Abstract Doc Link 6713210 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.48
A topical application of dibucaine abolished the formalin-induced increase in the release of immunoreactive Met-enkephalin.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of Met-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.69 Published 1984 Journal Brain Res. Bull. Section Abstract Doc Link 6713210 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
Noxious mechanical stimuli increase the release of Met-enkephalin-like material heterosegmentally in the rat spinal cord.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of Met-enkephalin-like in spinal cord associated with pain, enkephalin and spinal cord
8) Confidence 0.69 Published 1987 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 3828785 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.89
This latter disinhibitory effect was prevented by a mu-opioid antagonist, indicating that excitation of nicotinic-responsive interneurons induced the release of endogenous Enk, which in turn led to MOR activation.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of Enk in interneurons associated with antagonist, opioid receptor, enkephalin and opioid
9) Confidence 0.69 Published 2007 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Abstract Doc Link 17068095 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.23
Repeated short-term administration of nicotine, 0.1 mg/kg IP six times at 30 min intervals, produced significant increases in native and cryptic Met-enkephalin in striatum, consistent with an increase in neuronal release of Met-enkephalin together with increases in synthesis and processing of proenkephalin A in this brain region.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of Met-enkephalin in neuronal associated with nicotine and enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.69 Published 1987 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 3441443 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 1.77
Herpes simplex virusbased vectors, expressing proenkephalin delivered by subcutaneous inoculation, transduce neurons of the dorsal root ganglion, leading to release of enkephalin from nerve terminals in dorsal horn to produce an analgesic effect in several models of chronic pain.
Positive_regulation (leading) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in neurons associated with ganglion cysts, dorsal root ganglion, herpes simplex virus, lasting pain, analgesic, dorsal horn and enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 14601516 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.81
Basal release of enkephalin (ENK) but not beta-endorphin (END) or dynorphin (DYN) was increased 10 days following FA treatment.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of ENK associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.69 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1686211 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 1.10
Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) accelerated the release of enkephalin in the spinal cord.
Positive_regulation (accelerated) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in spinal cord associated with enkephalin, electroacupuncture and spinal cord
13) Confidence 0.68 Published 1993 Journal Sheng Li Xue Bao Section Abstract Doc Link 8296216 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.73
The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (10(-6) M) stimulated Met-ENK release, even in the presence of the Na+ -channel blocker tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M), a result indicating presynaptic opioid feedback inhibition of Met-ENK release.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of Localization (release) of Met-ENK associated with tetrodotoxin, antagonist, narcan, opioid receptor and opioid
14) Confidence 0.68 Published 1989 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2783452 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
The in vivo spontaneous release of enkephalin in the globus pallidus of the rat increases from noon to evening by 100%; during this period the local release of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decreases by 60%.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in globus pallidus associated with gaba and enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.67 Published 1986 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 3763960 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
These findings suggest that nitrous oxide might be capable of inducing the release of methionine-enkephalin in the central nervous system.
Positive_regulation (inducing) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in central nervous system associated with central nervous system and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.67 Published 1985 Journal Pharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 3975260 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.40
Intracerebroventricular injection of beta-endorphin caused a dose-dependent increase of the release of immunoreactive met-enkephalin from the spinal cord in these animals.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in spinal cord associated with enkephalin, intracerebroventricular and spinal cord
17) Confidence 0.67 Published 1989 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 2533328 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.71
Using this technique, we observed that some (but not all) nociceptive stimuli such as intense pinching of the muzzle, intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid or noxious heat applied to the muzzle or the tail induced a significant increase in met-enkephalin release from the spinal cord (see fig. 2).
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in spinal cord associated with nociception, enkephalin and spinal cord
18) Confidence 0.67 Published 1985 Journal J Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 2993751 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.48
A previous study demonstrated peripheral morphine administration to increase pallidal enkephalin release.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin and morphine
19) Confidence 0.67 Published 1998 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 9618438 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.00
On the basis of our results it is suggested that the enhanced enkephalin release in the amygdala during the early kindling stages might have a suppressive effect which may represent a homeostatic mechanism to avoid the spread of the afterdischarge to other structures.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Localization (release) of enkephalin in amygdala associated with enkephalin and amygdala
20) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7925825 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.84

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