INT26539

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2009
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 10
Total Number 11
Disease Relevance 1.28
Pain Relevance 2.90

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
hypothalamus 2
telencephalon 2
Leydig cells 2
striatum 2
hippocampal granule cells 2
PENK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Central grey 1 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 9 98.34 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 18 93.80 High High
Limbic system 3 91.80 High High
Hippocampus 1 90.64 High High
amygdala 1 90.12 High High
agonist 3 87.04 High High
Opioid 4 78.88 Quite High
Enkephalin 25 78.24 Quite High
Neuropeptide 1 78.00 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Urological Neuroanatomy 1 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 17 81.32 Quite High
Neuroblastoma 1 79.88 Quite High
Disease 5 75.00 Quite High
Pain 1 63.08 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Several lines of evidence suggest that receptor-mediated transcription of proenkephalin involves a reversible conformational change from duplex to a hairpin state of the enhancer [McMurray, C.T., Wilson, W.D., & Douglass, J.O. (1991) Proc.
Positive_regulation (mediated) of Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal Biochemistry Section Abstract Doc Link 7918415 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
This study reveals heterogeneous distribution of dense preproenkephalin messenger RNA in the basal ganglia and high levels of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in specific limbic-associated regions of the monkey telencephalon.
Positive_regulation (levels) of Transcription (distribution) of preproenkephalin in telencephalon
2) Confidence 0.49 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7777158 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
In contrast, high levels of proenkephalin messenger RNA were more widely expressed in the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, various mesencephalic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral pallidum; brain regions associated with endocrine-reticular-motor continuum of the limbic system.
Positive_regulation (levels) of Transcription (expressed) of proenkephalin in hypothalamus associated with limbic system and central grey
3) Confidence 0.49 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 9157322 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.65
ATF-3 expressed in bacteria or from rabbit reticulocyte lysates binds to the proenkephalin CRE-2 element as a homodimer and as a heterodimer with Jun-D, another activator of proenkephalin transcription.
Positive_regulation (activator) of Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin in reticulocyte
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 1994 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8152431 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.08
Triple (3 h apart), bilateral, intrastriatal administration of selective antagonists of mGluR1: (S)-(+)-alpha-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid (3 x 5 microg/0.5 microl) or 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate (3 x 2.5 microg/0.5 microl), reversed the haloperidol-induced increases in proenkephalin mRNA levels in the rostral and central regions of the striatum.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Transcription (levels) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with antagonist
5) Confidence 0.47 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.38
Treatment of cultured Leydig cells with hCG or a cAMP analog leads to a rapid increase in proenkephalin-mRNA levels.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Transcription (levels) of proenkephalin in Leydig cells
6) Confidence 0.45 Published 1989 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2560809 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Application of N-methyl-D-aspartate on to the dendrites of hippocampal granule cells dramatically decreased prodynorphin messenger RNA levels in the affected cells while increasing proenkephalin messenger RNA levels.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of Transcription (levels) of proenkephalin in hippocampal granule cells
7) Confidence 0.45 Published 1994 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7969920 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
Similarly, repeated (6 times, 1.5 h apart), systemic injections of an antagonist of mGluR5, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (6 x 10 mg/kg i.p.) counteracted an increase in the striatal proenkephalin mRNA expression elicited by haloperidol.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin associated with antagonist
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.40
Similarly, repeated (6 times, 1.5 h apart), systemic injections of an antagonist of mGluR5, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (6 x 10 mg/kg i.p.) counteracted an increase in the striatal proenkephalin mRNA expression elicited by haloperidol.
Positive_regulation (elicited) of Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin associated with antagonist
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 14622918 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.40
Preproenkephalin mRNA levels measured by in situ hybridization were increased in the lesioned striata of vehicle treated monkeys and were not further enhanced in estradiol-treated monkeys.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Transcription (levels) of Preproenkephalin
10) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 19115413 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.31
Preproenkephalin mRNA levels measured by in situ hybridization were increased in the lesioned striata of vehicle treated monkeys and were not further enhanced in estradiol-treated monkeys.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (levels) of Preproenkephalin
11) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 19115413 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.31

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