INT27269

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Context Info
Confidence 0.76
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 29
Total Number 29
Disease Relevance 15.42
Pain Relevance 2.19

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrh) extracellular region (Ghrh)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pituitary 4
neurons 2
lung 2
anterior pituitary 2
somatotropes 1
Ghrh (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Serotonin 26 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 356 97.92 Very High Very High Very High
Calcium channel 55 96.76 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 15 94.60 High High
Neuropeptide 21 91.16 High High
antidepressant 4 90.44 High High
Glutamate 10 82.48 Quite High
antagonist 145 80.32 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cancer 771 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Adenoma 258 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Carcinoid 301 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Acromegaly 364 99.22 Very High Very High Very High
Metastasis 227 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 143 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Rare Diseases 1 98.06 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 83 97.80 Very High Very High Very High
Intestinal Cancer 15 97.04 Very High Very High Very High
Thymus Neoplasms 15 96.28 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In addition to its direct effects on the pituitary, ghrelin clearly targets GH release indirectly at the level of the arcuate nucleus since: 1) anatomical disconnections between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland blunt GH secretion induced by GHS in vivo [13], [14]; 2) the GHSR is expressed in GHRH neurons, which trigger GH release by the pituitary gland [8]–[11]; 3) in vivo GHS treatments enhance GHRH secretion in sheep [1], [15] and induce c-fos expression in GHRH neurons in rodents [16].
Localization (secretion) of GHRH in pituitary
1) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
It is not known if GHSR also localize to GHRH nerve terminals.
Localization (localize) of GHRH in nerve
2) Confidence 0.71 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We studied identified GHRH neurons of GHRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice using patch-clamp methods and focused on gender differences, which govern the physiological patterns of GHRH release.
Localization (release) of GHRH in neurons associated with targeted disruption
3) Confidence 0.71 Published 2007 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17301171 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.17
Acromegaly is a rare disease, caused by a GH-secreting adenoma and in even more seldom instances (about 1%) due to excessive GHRH secretion, usually by a carcinoid tumor of the lung or gastrointestinal tract (Biermasz et al 2007).
Localization (secretion) of GHRH in lung associated with adenoma, rare diseases, carcinoid and acromegaly
4) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal Biologics : Targets & Therapy Section Body Doc Link PMC2721386 Disease Relevance 1.36 Pain Relevance 0.07
Fig. 3Dynamic GH (circles) and PRL (triangles) tests in two patients with a GHRH-secreting lung carcinoid before (closed symbols) and after surgery (open symbols).
Localization (secreting) of GHRH in lung associated with carcinoid
5) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
Faglia summarized the clinical findings of 39 reported acromegalic patients with proven ectopic GHRH secretion [17].
Localization (secretion) of GHRH
6) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0
Although the pituitary MRI studies in the ectopic GHRH syndrome are non-specific, in the absence of a clear adenoma, ectopic GHRH secretion should be considered and appropriate investigations installed to prevent unnecessary pituitary surgery.
Localization (secretion) of GHRH in pituitary associated with adenoma and syndrome
7) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0.05
Nevertheless, this examination could be particularly useful in the diagnostic phase of patients with suspected, but not yet proven, ectopic GHRH secretion.
Localization (secretion) of GHRH
8) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 1.30 Pain Relevance 0.09
Because GHRH neurons are such a small population [2], [29], a GHRH releasing agent such as ghrelin (or ghrelin mimetics) might trigger synchronisation between GHRH neurons [15].
Localization (releasing) of GHRH in neurons
9) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
This stimulation is prevented by growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1 antagonism as well as by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor and by calcium channels blockers.
Localization (secretagogue) of hormone associated with calcium channel
10) Confidence 0.62 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.24
The ghrelin receptor (GHSR, growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1) is found in several neuronal subtypes in the arcuate nucleus [8]–[11], where a diffuse pattern of ghrelin-containing terminals has been demonstrated [12].
Localization (secretagogue) of hormone in arcuate nucleus
11) Confidence 0.62 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Approximate entropy calculations of serum GHRH profiles disclosed high values, suggesting highly irregular secretion, a feature common with many other hormone-secreting tumors [7–9].
Localization (secretion) of GHRH associated with cancer
12) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.03
Because details of the secretion characteristics of GHRH are not well established, we estimated significant pulses in both time-series with Cluster, which is largely model-free [11].


Localization (secretion) of GHRH
13) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.03
Because of the highly significant copulsatility of GHRH and GH in two other patients reported in literature, it is reasonable to postulate that pulsatile GH secretion in these patients was generated via episodic GHRH secretion of the primary tumor, while in patients with a pituitary GH-secreting adenoma pulsatile secretion is probably a tumorous feature [8].
Localization (secretion) of GHRH in pituitary associated with adenoma and cancer
14) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.03
The majority of the GHRH-secreting tumors are bronchial carcinoids.
Localization (secreting) of GHRH associated with carcinoid and cancer
15) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.03
In the presence of metastases octreotide treatment is often, but not invariable, successful in suppressing GH and GHRH, because of its dual action on the pituitary gland and the GHRH-secreting tumor [51].
Localization (secreting) of GHRH in pituitary gland associated with cancer and metastasis
16) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0
Immunochemistry of the GHRH-secreting tumors has regularly demonstrated cosecretion of other hormones, including gastrin, gastrin-releasing peptide, calcitonin, pancreatic polypeptide, VIP, glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, pointing to the multihormonal nature of these tumors.
Localization (secreting) of GHRH associated with cancer and somatostatin
17) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 1.49 Pain Relevance 0.12
In this study we described in detail the clinical and biochemical characteristics of three patients with ectopic extracranial GHRH secretion diagnosed in a series of about 200 acromegalics investigated and treated in our center during the last 25 years.
Localization (secretion) of GHRH
18) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.03
Other GHRH-secreting tumors in decreasing order of occurrence are pancreatic adenomas, gastro-intestinal tumors, thymic tumors, and tumors associated with the MEN-I syndrome [2].
Localization (secreting) of GHRH associated with adenoma, syndrome, cancer, thymus neoplasms and intestinal cancer
19) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.03
In addition, we report detailed results of diurnal GH secretion, before and after removal of the GHRH-producing source in order to investigate whether pulsatile and basal GH secretion due to GHRH overproduction differs from that of a primary pituitary somatotropinoma.


Localization (secretion) of GHRH in pituitary
20) Confidence 0.60 Published 2007 Journal Pituitary Section Body Doc Link PMC2045692 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0.08

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