INT272879

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Context Info
Confidence 0.37
First Reported 2007
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 8
Total Number 8
Disease Relevance 5.96
Pain Relevance 1.17

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

nucleus (Hdac2) enzyme binding (Hdac2) transcription factor binding (Hdac2)
cytoplasm (Hdac2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
alveolar macrophages 2
macrophages 1
lymphocytes 1
epithelial cells 1
Hdac2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 565 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory response 92 95.80 Very High Very High Very High
corticosteroid 20 94.76 High High
Analgesic 1 92.40 High High
dexamethasone 7 88.04 High High
Bioavailability 45 82.72 Quite High
cytokine 103 76.08 Quite High
fibrosis 10 62.16 Quite High
chemokine 86 23.68 Low Low
antagonist 76 22.88 Low Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Nicotine Addiction 226 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 670 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Pulmonary Disease 579 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 324 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 151 97.56 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 137 96.86 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 7 92.56 High High
Epilepsy 3 90.76 High High
Cancer 48 77.44 Quite High
Stomach Cancer 36 68.08 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Biomonitoring of peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated the induction of histone hyperacetylation in the majority of patients and downregulation of HDAC2 [51].
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of HDAC2 in lymphocytes
1) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal J Exp Clin Cancer Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2994814 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.16
HDAC2 activity has also been measured in bronchial biopsies and alveolar macrophages from COPD patients and smoking control, demonstrating a significant decrease in HDAC2 activity, the magnitude of which increased with severity of disease (Ito et al 2005) (Table 1).
Negative_regulation (decrease) of HDAC2 in alveolar macrophages associated with nicotine addiction, pulmonary disease and disease
2) Confidence 0.23 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2695202 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.19
Thus, the cigarette smoke/oxidant-mediated reduction in HDAC2 levels in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages will not only increase inflammatory gene expression but will also cause a decrease in glucocorticoid function in patients with COPD.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HDAC2 in epithelial cells associated with pulmonary disease and inflammation
3) Confidence 0.17 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2695202 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0.21
A reduced level of HDAC2 was associated with increased proinflammatory response and reduced responsiveness to glucocorticoids in alveolar macrophages obtained from smokers (Ito et al 2001; Rahman et al 2002; Marwick et al 2004; Moodie et al 2004; Rahman et al 2004).
Negative_regulation (reduced) of HDAC2 in alveolar macrophages associated with nicotine addiction
4) Confidence 0.17 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2695202 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.29
Similarly, in models where HDAC-2 activity is compromised, GC function is reduced, and restoration or protection of HDAC-2 activity is correlated with a restoration in GC sensitivity.55,87 Therefore, there is strong evidence that the reduction in HDAC-2 activity and expression seen in patients with COPD is likely to be an important factor in the mechanisms of the relative GC insensitivity in this disease.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HDAC-2 associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and disease
5) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2939685 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.04
The acetylation – deacetylation balance of histone is a highly regulated process and central in the control of gene transcription.74 Therefore, this oxidant-mediated loss of HDAC-2 activity and resulting imbalance in histone acetylation status are likely to contribute to the enhanced inflammatory responses in this disease.
Negative_regulation (loss) of HDAC-2 associated with inflammatory response and disease
6) Confidence 0.11 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2939685 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.05
Acutely, oxidative stress reduces HDAC-2 activity with a reduction in HDAC-2 protein expression seen with more chronic oxidant exposures in in vitro and in vivo models.71,78,79 This reduction in HDAC-2 activity and expression is strongly associated with oxidant-mediated covalent modifications, including hyperphosphorylation, nitration, and carbonylation, which impair protein activity and enhance proteasomal degradation.72,73,78–83 These modifications are mediated by reactive oxygen, including reactive carbonyls and reactive nitrogen species, and by kinase signaling pathways activated by oxidant stress.72,73,83 Although the exact mechanisms and pathways that regulate these modifications remain unclear, recent work has suggested that oxidants modulate HDAC-2 phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination followed by proteasomal degradation through a protein kinase CK2?
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HDAC-2 associated with stress
7) Confidence 0.11 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2939685 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.03
Thus, the cigarette smoke/oxidant-mediated reduction in HDAC2 levels in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages will not only increase inflammatory gene expression but will also cause a decrease in glucocorticoid function in patients with COPD.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of HDAC2 in macrophages associated with pulmonary disease and inflammation
8) Confidence 0.06 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2695202 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0.21

General Comments

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