INT27627

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Context Info
Confidence 0.41
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 41
Total Number 44
Disease Relevance 22.88
Pain Relevance 13.68

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

intracellular (Rac1) enzyme binding (Rac1) GTPase activity (Rac1)
cytoplasm (Rac1) cell proliferation (Rac1) cell motility (Rac1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 4
limbs 2
motor nerve 1
photoreceptors 1
neurons 1
Rac1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 81 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
headache 73 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Botox 42 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Migraine 34 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cervicogenic headache 4 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
local anesthetic 6 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Snapping jaw 8 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 1 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Thermal hyperalgesia 1 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 344 97.92 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Headache 62 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 49 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cerebral Palsy 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinsonian Disorders 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spasticity 12 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Muscle Weakness 1 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Post-traumatic Headache 4 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Sleep Disorders 2 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 11 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Brachial Plexus Neuritis 2 99.52 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Botulinum toxin binds to the motor nerve end-plate and prevents acetylcholin release, causing presynaptic neuromuscular blockade.
Botulinum toxin Binding (binds) of in motor nerve
1) Confidence 0.41 Published 1999 Journal Pol. Merkur. Lekarski Section Abstract Doc Link 10598494 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.19
Interaction of botulinum toxin type A with local anesthetic agents: an experimental study with rabbits.
botulinum toxin Binding (Interaction) of associated with pain, local anesthetic and botox
2) Confidence 0.38 Published 2006 Journal Aesthetic Plast Surg Section Title Doc Link 16404653 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.01
Inhibition of the small GTP-binding protein Rac1 ameliorated post-SCI changes in spine morphology, attenuated injury-induced hyperexcitability of wide-dynamic range neurons, and progressively increased pain thresholds over a 3 d period.
Rac1 Binding (binding) of in neurons associated with pain, injury, frailty and hyperexcitability
3) Confidence 0.36 Published 2008 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 19052208 Disease Relevance 1.54 Pain Relevance 0.91
An individual who is injected with botulinum toxin for cosmetic purposes could someday require an effective form of type A toxin for dystonia, pain, or spasticity.
botulinum toxin Binding (injected) of associated with pain, spasticity and dystonia
4) Confidence 0.33 Published 2007 Journal Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am Section Abstract Doc Link 17317551 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.10
Botulinum toxin has no known systemic adverse effects, and can be combined with other treatments without concern for drug interactions.
Botulinum toxin Binding (combined) of
5) Confidence 0.33 Published 2009 Journal J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19150277 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.67
A novel treatment procedure is introduced for severe clicking of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) associated with anterior disc displacement (ADD), using injections with botulinum toxin (BTX-A) in the lateral pterygoid muscle (LP).
botulinum toxin Binding (injections) of in muscle associated with snapping jaw
6) Confidence 0.32 Published 2005 Journal Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod Section Abstract Doc Link 16301150 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.58
Migraine, tension-type headache, and cervicogenic headache cannot be regarded as a general indication for a treatment with botulinum toxin.


botulinum toxin Binding (treatment) of
7) Confidence 0.32 Published 2004 Journal Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg Section Body Doc Link 15167029 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
One patient did not complete botulinum toxin treatment because of subjective weakness, although there were virtually no side effects reported in patients completing therapy.
botulinum toxin Neg (not) Binding (complete) of
8) Confidence 0.30 Published 1999 Journal J. Child Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10614564 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.24
Twenty-three patients undergoing a 5-U injection of diluted botulinum toxin A (BOTOX) on each side of the anal sphincter (total dose, 10 U) constituted the first group.
botulinum toxin Binding (injection) of
9) Confidence 0.30 Published 1999 Journal Dis. Colon Rectum Section Body Doc Link 10458124 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Furthermore, deletion of Rac1 GTPase in mouse rod photoreceptors via a Cre/Lox approach has been shown to strongly protect rod photoreceptors against photo-oxidative stress [27].
Rac1 Binding (deletion) of in photoreceptors associated with stress
10) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 0.33
Furthermore, saline treatment had no effect upon Rac1 activity at 3 h post-reperfusion, whereas treatment with the Rac GTPase inhibitor, NSC23766 resulted in ?
Rac1 Neg (no) Binding (activity) of
11) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.15
Rac1-GTP binding assay
Rac1 Binding (binding) of
12) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Pain relief in patients receiving periocular botulinum toxin A.
botulinum toxin Binding (receiving) of associated with pain
13) Confidence 0.29 Published 2008 Journal Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg Section Title Doc Link 18356715 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.49
Failures can be treated with classical CT-guided infiltrations with botulinum toxin.
botulinum toxin Binding (infiltrations) of
14) Confidence 0.29 Published 2009 Journal Neurochirurgie Section Abstract Doc Link 19744678 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.59
CONCLUSIONS: Local infiltration with botulinum toxin A appears to be an effective treatment for persistent muscle contracture in cephalic tetanus.


botulinum toxin Binding (infiltration) of in muscle
15) Confidence 0.29 Published 2007 Journal Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg Section Body Doc Link 17023100 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
PERSPECTIVE: A case is presented of refractory perineal pain that was successfully treated by injecting the obturator internus muscle with botulinum toxin A.
botulinum toxin Binding (injecting) of in muscle associated with pain and reprotox - general 3
16) Confidence 0.29 Published 2005 Journal J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 15890635 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.26
An 11-year-old male diagnosed with autism and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome received bilateral injections of botulinum toxin type-A (Botox Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Irvine CA) in the masseter muscle.
botulinum toxin Binding (injections) of in muscle associated with autism, syndrome and botox
17) Confidence 0.29 Published 2006 Journal Spec Care Dentist Section Abstract Doc Link 16703933 Disease Relevance 0.85 Pain Relevance 0.14
Does botulinum toxin A make prosthesis use easier for amputees?
botulinum toxin Binding (use) of
18) Confidence 0.29 Published 2004 Journal J Rehabil Med Section Title Doc Link 15626165 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.43
In summary, pure idiopathic headache disorders cannot be regarded as an indication for botulinum toxin to date.
botulinum toxin Binding (indication) of associated with tension-type headache and headache
19) Confidence 0.29 Published 2007 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2656318 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.73
Botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of oromandibular dystonia.
Botulinum toxin Binding (injection) of associated with dystonia
20) Confidence 0.29 Published 1989 Journal Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. Section Title Doc Link 2916831 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.06

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