INT27660

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Context Info
Confidence 0.40
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 21
Total Number 21
Disease Relevance 12.47
Pain Relevance 3.51

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (CFP) extracellular region (CFP)
Anatomy Link Frequency
dorsal 2
PFC 2
visceral 1
brain 1
striatum 1
CFP (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Thalamus 16 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 96 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 34 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 37 98.28 Very High Very High Very High
addiction 61 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Anterior cingulate cortex 31 97.92 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 23 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
depression 89 96.66 Very High Very High Very High
medulla 2 95.56 Very High Very High Very High
Potency 7 94.44 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Poisoning 883 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 10 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Gallstones 2 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Neurologic Manifestations 49 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 133 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 133 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Antisocial Personality Disorder 1 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Coma 29 99.14 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 219 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Ataxia 21 98.78 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been widely recognized to play a critical role in successful decision-making, fuelled in part by well-studied single cases like Phineas Gage and EVR (Eslinger and Damasio, 1985; Damasio, 1994; Dimitrov et al., 1999; Cato et al., 2004).
vmPFC Binding (recognized) of in cortex
1) Confidence 0.40 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.20
AP-associated PFC was as frequent in nonalcoholic men as in nonalcoholic women and presented with gallstones in 48%.
PFC Binding (presented) of associated with pancreatitis and gallstones
2) Confidence 0.36 Published 1989 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2646086 Disease Relevance 1.27 Pain Relevance 0.42
Of note, recent reports [85] suggest that CFP may be associated not only with coral reefs, but also with oil rigs and other artificial reefs.
CFP Binding (associated) of associated with poisoning
3) Confidence 0.35 Published 2008 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2579736 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0
On a task with minimal demands for learning or working memory, performance was intact in a lesion control group with mainly dlPFC and/or vlPFC damage.
dlPFC Binding (group) of
4) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.06
The insular cortex may also play an important role in emotional decision-making, via its extensive reciprocal connectivity with the vmPFC (Augustine, 1996; Ongur and Price, 2000), as well as the amygdala and ventral striatum (Reynolds and Zahm, 2005).
vmPFC Binding (connectivity) of in striatum associated with amygdala
5) Confidence 0.31 Published 2008 Journal Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC2367692 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.11
A study by Bagnis et al. [65] randomized 63 CFP patients in French Polynesia to one of two treatment groups: IV mannitol infusion (n=34), or “standard” treatment (n=29) which included intravenous infusion of glucose, Vitamin B and calcium gluconate.
CFP Binding (randomized) of associated with poisoning
6) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2579736 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0
CFP is associated with gastrointestinal (GI), cardiovascular, neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs.
CFP Binding (associated) of associated with poisoning
7) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2579736 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0.12
It is also advisable to avoid consuming large predatory reef fish from areas known to be associated with CFP.
CFP Binding (associated) of associated with poisoning
8) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2579736 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0
More marked mental status changes such as hallucinations, giddiness [25], incoordination or ataxia [25,26], and coma [16] have been reported, but appear to be specific to CFP in Indian and Pacific Ocean regions.
CFP Binding (specific) of associated with hallucination, ataxia, poisoning and coma
9) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2579736 Disease Relevance 1.61 Pain Relevance 0.19
Based upon available evidence and anecdotal experience, the authors recommend the following “best practice” guidelines for CFP clinicians:



CFP Binding (recommend) of associated with poisoning
10) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2579736 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.03
Although rare, there are reports of neurologic symptoms, presumed to be associated with CFP, lasting for years in some patients [9,26,32].
CFP Binding (associated) of associated with poisoning and neurologic manifestations
11) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Marine Drugs Section Body Doc Link PMC2579736 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.24
Studies of frontal activity in depression have highlighted these differences, with the DLPFC, associated with cognitive and executive functions showing decreased activity in depressed states, and the ventral PFC, associated with emotional processing, showing increased activity during episodes of emotional rumination (see [86] or [50]).
PFC Binding (associated) of in ventral associated with cognitive disorder and depression
12) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Ann Gen Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2515304 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.17
As well, the cognitive deficits model of drug addiction could explain the clinical observation that heroin addiction is more severe in individuals with antisocial personality disorder—a condition that is independently associated with PFC deficits (Raine et al., 2000).
PFC Binding (associated) of in PFC associated with drug dependence, addiction, cognitive disorder, antisocial personality disorder and opiate addiction
13) Confidence 0.22 Published 2002 Journal Sci Pract Perspect Section Body Doc Link PMC2851054 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.40
Spatial working memory has been associated with the dorsolateral PFC, while the orbital and ventromedial PFC allow recognition and inhibition of emotional responses, important for appropriate social behaviour [19].
PFC Binding (associated) of
14) Confidence 0.13 Published 2008 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2289834 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.28
suggests that subcortical afferents to cortex in the fornix could subserve interaction between PFC and visual information from outside the inferotemporal cortex, perhaps, as suggested, via dorsal stream projections to the parahippocampal cortex.
PFC Binding (interaction) of in dorsal
15) Confidence 0.13 Published 2008 Journal The European Journal of Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2327205 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This suggests that, with age, there is increasing reliance on the executive functions associated with PFC and, further, that a cognitive benefit is associated with that increased reliance.



PFC Binding (associated) of associated with cognitive disorder
16) Confidence 0.11 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2999838 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0
The right PFC has been associated with negative affect, behavioral inhibition and vigilant attention, whereas left-sided PFC regions are particularly involved in approach-related, appetitive goals [69].
PFC Binding (associated) of
17) Confidence 0.10 Published 2007 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2176059 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.28
The dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) receives extensive innervations from the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and sends prominent projections to dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, allowing a key role in executive functions.
PFC Binding (sends) of in dorsal associated with ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens and thalamus
18) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2289834 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.25
From both animal data and theoretical considerations, it is evident that fear extinction involves mainly interactions between cortical and subcortical structures, such as the PFC and the amygdala or the hippocampus (see for an overview [79]).
PFC Binding (interactions) of in hippocampus associated with anxiety disorder, hippocampus and amygdala
19) Confidence 0.10 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2692002 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.41
The neural substrate of conditioned HR adjustments incorporates the mPFC and the ACN, and their interconnections (Powell et al 1997), both of which also provide separate direct projections to visceral control nuclei in the medulla (Buchanan et al 1994).
mPFC Binding (interconnections) of in visceral associated with medulla
20) Confidence 0.04 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2526370 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.22

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