INT2777

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1979
Last Reported 2002
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 21
Total Number 21
Disease Relevance 0.63
Pain Relevance 9.96

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 6
PPN 3
nucleus accumbens 3
hypothalamus 3
brain 2
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 81 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 11 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 4 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 2 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 5 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Kinase C 6 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 3 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 14 98.62 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 8 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 7 97.94 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Thyroid Disease 1 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction 2 93.60 High High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 1 84.00 Quite High
Urological Neuroanatomy 2 78.44 Quite High
Stress 5 78.00 Quite High
Pain 1 44.80 Quite Low

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Imipramine induces alterations in proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs level in the nucleus accumbens and striatum in the rat.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Regulation (alterations) of proenkephalin in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens and enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 1997 Journal Pol J Pharmacol Section Title Doc Link 9566035 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
Rapid changes in enkephalin levels in rat striatum and hypothalamus induced by diazepam.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Regulation (changes) of enkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.50 Published 1979 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 522892 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.77
Pretreatment of rat brain membranes at pH 4.5 increased GTP and Gpp(NH)p regulation of [3H]-D-ala2-met5-enkephalinamide (D-ala-enk) binding with no change in absolute binding itself.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Regulation (regulation) of enk in brain
3) Confidence 0.49 Published 1983 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 6319864 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
Brief social deprivation increased the levels of ENK RNA and enkephalin immunoreactivity in whole hypothalamus. 4.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Regulation (immunoreactivity) of enkephalin in hypothalamus associated with enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.47 Published 1992 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1490274 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.28
Our results can be summarized as follows: (1) hypothyroidism induces an up-regulation of ENK mRNA in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and layers V/VI of the cingulate cortex and of DYN mRNA in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus; (2) the up-regulation of ENK mRNA expression in the granule cells induced by KA is not modified by altered thyroid status; (3) in contrast, the KA injection fails to up-regulate DYN precursor mRNA expression in the granule cells of the rostral dentate gyrus of the hypothyroid rats; (4) injection of KA in hyperthyroid rats increases the expression of DYN mRNA in the granule dentate gyrus more than in euthyroid rats.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Regulation (regulation) of ENK mRNA in granule cells associated with dynorphin, thyroid disease and enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.47 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7583317 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.84
High levels of proenkephalin mRNA and enkephalin immunoreactivity were detected in immature cells identified as astrocytes.
Positive_regulation (levels) of Regulation (immunoreactivity) of enkephalin in astrocytes associated with enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.46 Published 1990 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2224534 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.46
Transsynaptic neurogenic activity and reserpine are two signals that cause the proenkephalin (Penk) gene to alter the levels of preproenkephalin (PPenk) mRNA and enkephalin-containing (EC) peptides.
Positive_regulation (cause) of Regulation (alter) of proenkephalin associated with enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.45 Published 1991 Journal Mol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1717819 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.14
Furthermore, ongoing protein synthesis is not required for forskolin- or PMA-induced alterations in proENK mRNA.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Regulation (alterations) of proENK mRNA
8) Confidence 0.45 Published 1996 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 8923515 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Effect of melatonin on the regulation of proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNA levels induced by kainic acid in the rat hippocampus.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Regulation (regulation) of proenkephalin in hippocampus associated with enkephalin and hippocampus
9) Confidence 0.44 Published 2000 Journal Hippocampus Section Title Doc Link 10902893 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
From the results obtained in the present study it may be concluded that repeated administration of TIA or FLU induced similar changes in the levels of Met-Enk in the rat hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe of pituitary.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Regulation (changes) of Met-Enk in lobe associated with hippocampus
10) Confidence 0.44 Published 2002 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11939714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
However, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, which blocks cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases, potentiated the effect of TPA on proenkephalin mRNA, when used at concentrations of 0.5-50 mumol/l.
Positive_regulation (potentiated) of Regulation (effect) of proenkephalin mRNA
11) Confidence 0.43 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8774948 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
As reported previously, the unilateral dopaminergic lesion resulted in marked decreases in substance P mRNA expression and immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral striatum while enkephalin mRNA expression and Met-enkephalin immunoreactivity were considerably increased in this structure.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Regulation (immunoreactivity) of Met-enkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin and substance p
12) Confidence 0.41 Published 1996 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8743739 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.99
In addition, the immunoreactivity of leucine-enkephalin, dynorphin, and neurotensin increased in the ipsilateral central nucleus of the amygdala.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Regulation (immunoreactivity) of leucine-enkephalin in amygdala associated with dynorphin, enkephalin and amygdala
13) Confidence 0.37 Published 1995 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8636466 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.40
When adrenal medullary cells are cultured in vitro, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA, preproenkephalin (PPEnk) mRNA, and methionine enkephalin (Mek) immunoreactivity was markedly increased compared with intact adrenal medullary cells in situ, suggesting an increased biosynthesis of catecholamines and enkephalin-containing peptides.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Regulation (immunoreactivity) of preproenkephalin associated with catecholamine and enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.37 Published 2000 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10683300 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
[Opioid receptor mediated modulation of intrahippocampal enkephalin induced cellular immune function].
Positive_regulation (mediated) of Regulation (modulation) of enkephalin associated with narcan, enkephalin and opioid receptor
15) Confidence 0.37 Published 1999 Journal Sheng Li Xue Bao Section Title Doc Link 11972184 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.81
Imipramine induces alterations in proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs level in the nucleus accumbens and striatum in the rat.
Positive_regulation (induces) of in striatum Regulation (alterations) of proenkephalin in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.23 Published 1997 Journal Pol J Pharmacol Section Title Doc Link 9566035 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
Rapid changes in enkephalin levels in rat striatum and hypothalamus induced by diazepam.
Positive_regulation (induced) of in hypothalamus Regulation (changes) of enkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.17 Published 1979 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 522892 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.77
After estrogen treatment, CGRP immunoreactivity was markedly increased in the PPN and MPN, whereas Met-Enk immunoreactivity was increased in the MPN.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Regulation (immunoreactivity) of Met-Enk in PPN associated with calcitonin gene-related peptide
18) Confidence 0.16 Published 1994 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 8047292 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.46
Evidence is presented for the differential involvement of these protein kinases in regulation of enkephalin and VIP biosynthesis in chromaffin cells, and for a prominent role of the mixed-function (tyrosine and serine/threonine) MAP kinase family in mediating transcriptional activation of neuropeptide genes by PACAP.
Positive_regulation (presented) of Regulation (regulation) of enkephalin in chromaffin cells associated with neuropeptide and enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.08 Published 2002 Journal Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12438168 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.50
After estrogen treatment, CGRP immunoreactivity was markedly increased in the PPN and MPN, whereas Met-Enk immunoreactivity was increased in the MPN.
Positive_regulation (increased) of in MPN Regulation (immunoreactivity) of Met-Enk in PPN associated with calcitonin gene-related peptide
20) Confidence 0.06 Published 1994 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 8047292 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.46

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