INT2780

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Context Info
Confidence 0.62
First Reported 1979
Last Reported 2009
Negated 47
Speculated 36
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 265
Total Number 301
Disease Relevance 32.45
Pain Relevance 143.88

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 64
brain 40
hippocampus 32
neurons 26
chromaffin cells 25
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 1129 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 186 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 172 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 145 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 143 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 132 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 130 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 90 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 84 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 82 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cold Sores 109 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 87 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 41 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catalepsy 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glioma 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 16 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 8 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 16 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 3 99.78 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Repeated MPEP (6 x 10 mg/kg ip) administration did not influence PENK expression in naïve rats, but diminished that increased by haloperidol.
Neg (not) Regulation (influence) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK
1) Confidence 0.62 Published 2002 Journal Amino Acids Section Abstract Doc Link 12373537 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.30
Glutamatergic control of the expression of the proenkephalin gene in rat frontoparietal cortical slice cultures.
Regulation (control) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in frontoparietal associated with enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.62 Published 1998 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Title Doc Link 9863697 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.32
However, incubation of the cultures with the opioid agonist etorphine or the antagonist naltrexone did not alter PENK gene expression, suggesting that there is not feedback control of opioids on PENK biosynthesis in these cells. 5.
Neg (not) Regulation (alter) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with mu agonist, antagonist, opioid and immobilon
3) Confidence 0.62 Published 1991 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2029727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.54
Fetal brain cell cultures are therefore a useful neuronal model system for studying the mechanism that regulated the expression of PENK mRNA.
Regulation (regulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK mRNA in neuronal
4) Confidence 0.62 Published 1991 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2029727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
Regulation of proenkephalin A gene expression in aggregating fetal rat brain cells.
Regulation (Regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in brain associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.62 Published 1991 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Title Doc Link 2029727 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.67
Irradiation influences the expression of substance P and enkephalin in the rat larynx.
Regulation (influences) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in larynx associated with enkephalin and substance p
6) Confidence 0.62 Published 1995 Journal Cell Tissue Res. Section Title Doc Link 7534650 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.78
No changes in substance P- and enkephalin expression were observed in other laryngeal structures, the nodose ganglia, superior cervical ganglia or laryngeal nerve paraganglia.
Neg (No) Regulation (changes) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in ganglia associated with enkephalin and substance p
7) Confidence 0.62 Published 1995 Journal Cell Tissue Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7534650 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.66
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that enkephalin expression in regions of the rat mesocorticolimbic system is differentially altered by acute ethanol treatment and suggest that enkephalins may play a key role in ethanol reinforcement mechanisms.


Regulation (altered) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin
8) Confidence 0.62 Published 2006 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Body Doc Link 17047937 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
In contrast to chronic Ensure(R), acute ingestion of Ensure(R) did not appear to affect enkephalin peptide gene expression.
Regulation (affect) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.62 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 14622160 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
The hypothesis that striatal dopamine regulates enkephalin (ENK) synthesis is supported by the increase of striatal proenkephalin mRNA and ENK after intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine.
Regulation (regulates) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of enkephalin associated with dopamine and enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.62 Published 1987 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 3110407 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.75
Estrogen-induced alterations of spinal cord enkephalin gene expression.
Regulation (alterations) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in spinal cord associated with enkephalin and spinal cord
11) Confidence 0.62 Published 1999 Journal Pain Section Title Doc Link 10534596 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.95
We have previously demonstrated that these neurons display intracellular estrogen receptors, suggesting that estrogen can potentially influence their enkephalin expression.
Regulation (influence) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in neurons associated with enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.62 Published 1999 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 10534596 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.77
These results suggest that changes in PENK gene expression after contingent cocaine administration might be involved in cocaine withdrawal states.
Regulation (changes) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene associated with withdrawal and cocaine
13) Confidence 0.62 Published 2001 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 11425502 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
Extinction of cocaine self-administration produces a differential time-related regulation of proenkephalin gene expression in rat brain.
Regulation (regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in brain associated with enkephalin and cocaine
14) Confidence 0.62 Published 2001 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Title Doc Link 11425502 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
Expression of the enkephalin precursor gene in C6 rat glioma cells: regulation by beta-adrenergic agonists and glucocorticoids.
Regulation (regulation) of Gene_expression (Expression) of enkephalin precursor gene associated with agonist, enkephalin and glioma
15) Confidence 0.62 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 2874871 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.72
The present results suggest that thyroid hormones exert an inhibitory control of expression of ENK and DYN mRNAs in selected brain areas.
Regulation (control) of Gene_expression (expression) of ENK in thyroid associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.62 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7583317 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.87
Changes in Proenkephalin mRNA expression in forebrain areas after amphetamine-induced behavioural sensitization.
Regulation (Changes) of Gene_expression (expression) of Proenkephalin mRNA in forebrain associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.62 Published 2007 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Title Doc Link 17537495 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.39
These data suggest a novel role for striatal acetylcholine in modulating feeding behavior via its effects on enkephalin gene expression.
Regulation (effects) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin gene associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.62 Published 2005 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 16367789 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.31
Bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway reproduces the effects of unilateral lesion on substance P but not on enkephalin expression in rat basal ganglia.
Regulation (effects) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in basal ganglia associated with dopamine, enkephalin and substance p
19) Confidence 0.62 Published 1996 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 8921265 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.96
These data suggest that the effects of dopamine deafferentation on substance P expression in the striatonigral system may be due primarily to removal of direct dopamine influence, whereas the effects on enkephalin expression in the striatopallidal system may involve complex interhemispheric adaptive mechanisms.
Regulation (effects) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with dopamine, enkephalin, substance p and deafferentation
20) Confidence 0.62 Published 1996 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8921265 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.86

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