INT28359

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Context Info
Confidence 0.57
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2011
Negated 2
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 39
Total Number 41
Disease Relevance 34.09
Pain Relevance 3.40

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 8
lymphocytes 4
neuronal 2
blood 2
marginal zone 1
Pdcd1 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 249 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 11 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 87 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 82 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 656 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Neuritis 2 95.36 Very High Very High Very High
peripheral neuropathy 3 95.10 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory response 40 77.00 Quite High
Hippocampus 75 70.24 Quite High
Arthritis 87 57.16 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Death 161 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 18 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Follicular Lymphoma 264 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 113 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 888 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia 48 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Lymphatic System Cancer 1464 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 699 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Autoimmune Disease 25 98.90 Very High Very High Very High
B-cell Lymphoma 324 98.88 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We identified seven QTLs for peripheral neuropathy and neuritis, one QTL for insulitis, four QTLs for gastritis, two QTLs for sialadenitis and seven QTLs for vasculitis throughout the genome and designated them as Annp loci for autoimmunity due to polymorphisms of non-MHC genes in NOD mice and PD-1 deficiency.
Gene_expression (deficiency) of PD-1 associated with autoimmune disease, diabetes mellitus, sialadenitis, peripheral neuropathy, increased venous pressure under development, gastritis and neuritis
1) Confidence 0.57 Published 2009 Journal Int. Immunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19261693 Disease Relevance 2.75 Pain Relevance 0.30
However, we did not observe a greater frequency of PD-1+ cells or the level of PD-1 expression on lymphocytes isolated from the lung, as compared to spleen, of uninfected mice (data not shown).
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 in lymphocytes
2) Confidence 0.20 Published 2008 Journal Virol J Section Body Doc Link PMC2561024 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
While this result suggests that tissue-specific up-regulation of PD-1 on the surface of pulmonary lymphocytes is not the mechanism for pulmonary T cell dysfunction, this does not rule out the possibility of differences in PD-1 ligand expression between the lung and spleen, nor any of the other mechanisms mentioned above.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 in lymphocytes
3) Confidence 0.18 Published 2008 Journal Virol J Section Body Doc Link PMC2561024 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
As the reported defect in pulmonary lymphocyte function was observed even in the absence of an active pulmonary infection (i.e. in mice infected with VV-M2 by ID route), we would expect that any differences in PD-1 expression between the lung and spleen would be present even in naïve mice.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 in spleen associated with infection
4) Confidence 0.18 Published 2008 Journal Virol J Section Body Doc Link PMC2561024 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0
A recent study shows that soluble programmed death one (PD-1) could be detected in RA patients and the levels of soluble PD-1 are correlated with TNF-?
Gene_expression (levels) of PD-1 associated with rheumatoid arthritis and death
5) Confidence 0.17 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2760136 Disease Relevance 1.22 Pain Relevance 0.35
Although CD8 exhaustion has not been reported in patients with leishmaniasis, our results on “functional exhaustion” is in accordance with the literature since Joshi and coworkers could demonstrate that L. donovani limits CD8 expansion and induces functional exhaustion in an experimental model [16] which was associated with increased PD-1 expression by Leishmania-specific CD8.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 associated with leishmaniasis
6) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.03
production were restored with both stimuli, whereas PD-1 (a molecule associated with cellular exhaustion) expression, was reduced.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1
7) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.05
Since exhausted T cells have been shown to have increased expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) molecules, which could be modified by TLR-9 ligand, we analyzed if PD-1 expression in CD8 cells of DCL patients could be modified by TLR2 agonists.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 in T cells associated with agonist, diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and death
8) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.13
Recently, Wong and co-workers [18] demonstrated that peptide vaccination in the presence of CpG ODN (TLR9 ligand) reduced expression of PD-1 in mice.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1
9) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0
We found that PD-1 expression in CD8+ of DCL patients was significantly reduced after stimulation with both TLR2 agonists, LPG (p?
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 associated with agonist and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis
10) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.14
Since exhausted T cells have been shown to have increased expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) molecules, which could be modified by TLR-9 ligand, we analyzed if PD-1 expression in CD8 cells of DCL patients could be modified by TLR2 agonists.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 in T cells associated with agonist, diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and death
11) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.12
Therefore, we hypothesized that TLR2 stimulation could reduce PD-1 expression and restore CD8 functional activity in DCL patients against MOi.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 associated with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis
12) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
“Exhausted” cells have been shown to express higher levels of PD-1, among other inhibitors, and essays of restoration of these exhausted T-lymphocytes have focused on the use of anti-PD-L1 and PD-L2 antibodies, which prevent binding of T-cell PD-1 to the antigen-presenting cell (APC) ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 [16], [17], [38].
Gene_expression (express) of PD-1 in T-cell
13) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0
As the reported defect in pulmonary lymphocyte function was observed even in the absence of an active pulmonary infection (i.e. in mice infected with VV-M2 by ID route), we would expect that any differences in PD-1 expression between the lung and spleen would be present even in naïve mice.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 in lung associated with infection
14) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Virol J Section Body Doc Link PMC2561024 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0
In addition to restoring these functions, TLR2-stimulated CD8 cells showed a reduction in PD-1 expression, a molecule frequently present in cellular exhaustion.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1
15) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.13
We were able to show that PD-1 expression on CD8 from DCL patients could be reduced by stimulation with TLR2 ligands and that the reduction correlated with functional restoration (Figure 6D).
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 associated with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis
16) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.03
Our analysis also showed that PD-1 expression on CD8 of DCL seems to be associated with functional exhaustion.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1 associated with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis
17) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.03
Additionally, PD-1 expression was analyzed in non-stimulated and stimulated CD8 stained with anti-CD8 PE, anti-CD3 CyChrome and anti-PD-1 FITC.
Spec (analyzed) Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1
18) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC2970528 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
Increased expression of PD-1L suggests that the inflammatory cells that are attracted into the brain may not always be fully functional effector T cells, as demonstrated in LCMV infection [86,109] when this is associated with diminished activity of T cells.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1L in effector T cells associated with inflammation and infection
19) Confidence 0.04 Published 2008 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2588578 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.08
Because there was increased expression of PD-1L in whole genome microarrays, and this is a ligand that allows persistent Lymphochoriomeningitis virus brain infection by limiting activity of T cells, hamster antibody to PD-1L or isotype-control was administered every 7 days for 21 days.
Gene_expression (expression) of PD-1L in brain associated with infection
20) Confidence 0.04 Published 2008 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2588578 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.29

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