INT2862

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 7
Speculated 7
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 108
Total Number 115
Disease Relevance 20.75
Pain Relevance 94.25

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Cck) extracellular region (Cck)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal cord 22
plasma 20
spinal 14
dorsal horn 12
sciatic nerve 12
Cck (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cholecystokinin 883 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 158 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
electroacupuncture 46 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 33 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Bile 28 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 21 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 15 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 104 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 52 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Gallstones 6 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 16 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 100 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 15 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 12 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 7 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 15 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 3 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Anorexia 2 98.44 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In contrast, morphine did not induce CCK release during carrageenan-induced inflammation.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (induce) of Neg (not) Localization (release) of CCK associated with inflammation, cholecystokinin and morphine
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1998 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 9596344 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 1.95
Similar increases in plasma CCK levels and pancreatic secretion were observed with duodenal administration of casein.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Localization (secretion) of CCK in plasma
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Gastroenterology Section Body Doc Link 8039628 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Maximal stimulation of CCK release was observed at 55 mM potassium.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of Localization (release) of CCK associated with cholecystokinin
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1987 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2884011 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.95
Increased cholecystokinin release in the rat anterior cingulate cortex during carrageenan-induced arthritis.
Positive_regulation (Increased) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin in anterior associated with anterior cingulate cortex, cholecystokinin and arthritis
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 2004 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 15353211 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 1.34
Food ingestion stimulates cholecystokinin (CCK) release from the proximal intestine, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood.
Positive_regulation (stimulates) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin in intestine associated with cholecystokinin
5) Confidence 0.70 Published 1993 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8338159 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.25
In the present microdialysis study, performed in the awake rat, we demonstrate a bilateral 4- to 6-fold increase of the potassium-induced release of CCK-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) in the ACC 2-3 weeks after a unilateral transection of the sciatic nerve (axotomy), an animal model of phantom limb or deafferentiation pain.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of CCK in sciatic nerve associated with pain, phantom limb, sciatic nerve, anterior cingulate cortex and cholecystokinin
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 11059899 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 1.01
Peripheral axotomy increases cholecystokinin release in the rat anterior cingulate cortex.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin in anterior associated with anterior cingulate cortex and cholecystokinin
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal Neuroreport Section Title Doc Link 11059899 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.96
Our data indicate that activation of L- and N-type calcium channels is of importance for morphine-induced CCK release, even though the precise site of action of morphine in the dorsal horn remains unclear.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of CCK in dorsal horn associated with calcium channel, dorsal horn, cholecystokinin and morphine
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 10461906 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.84
Given a hypothesised role for CCK in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for the sensation of pain, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether the increased CCK release could be affected by two different analgesic drugs, morphine and the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of CCK in cingulate cortex associated with pain, analgesic, diclofenac, anterior cingulate cortex and morphine
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17229410 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.98
Since opioids stimulate CCK release in other CNS regions we have also studied the effect of morphine by itself on the CCK-LI release in the ACC of non-arthritic rats.
Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (release) of CCK in ACC associated with anterior cingulate cortex, opioid, arthritis and morphine
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17229410 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 1.18
Morphine also increased CCK release, via an action at delta 2 receptors.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of CCK associated with cholecystokinin and morphine
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 1998 Journal Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. Section Abstract Doc Link 9648346 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 1.56
In contrast, the delta 2-mediated increase in CCK release persisted.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of CCK associated with cholecystokinin
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 1998 Journal Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. Section Abstract Doc Link 9648346 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 1.71
While the effect of morphine on CCK-LI can be interpreted as the result of increased CCK release, the effect on MOR-LI may be related to changes in the microenvironment of the dorsal horn induced by nerve injury.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of CCK in dorsal horn associated with nervous system injury, dorsal horn, opioid receptor, cholecystokinin and morphine
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 1999 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10612699 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 1.71
Bile exclusion from the duodenum causes an increase in basal CCK and enhances stimulated plasma CCK release, and bile salt replacement reverses these effects.
Positive_regulation (enhances) of Localization (release) of CCK in plasma associated with bile and cholecystokinin
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10759224 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.84
Another kind of CCK-RF named 'monitor peptide' was purified from the rat pancreatic juice that stimulates CCK secretion when introduced into rat intestine.
Positive_regulation (stimulates) of Localization (secretion) of CCK in intestine associated with cholecystokinin
15) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10759224 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.80
A transient disturbance of bile flow into the duodenum by stones or oedema of the pancreas together with impairment of pancreatic exocrine function might cause the increase in plasma CCK release in gallstone pancreatitis.
Spec (might) Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of CCK in plasma associated with pressure and volume under development, bile, pancreatitis, gallstones and cholecystokinin
16) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10759224 Disease Relevance 1.15 Pain Relevance 1.07
These data suggest that an opioid acting through the stimulation of mu, delta and kappa receptors (such as morphine) should produce a net increase in the spinal release of CCK.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of CCK in spinal associated with cholecystokinin, opioid and morphine
17) Confidence 0.69 Published 1991 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 1648690 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.83
Vagally mediated release of gastrin and cholecystokinin following sensory stimulation.
Positive_regulation (mediated) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin associated with anesthesia and cholecystokinin
18) Confidence 0.69 Published 1992 Journal Acta Physiol. Scand. Section Title Doc Link 1362318 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Pretreatment with CCK-8 (10 microg/kg i.p.) or with 8% peptone, that is known to stimulate CCK release, also produced a significant rise in plasma leptin levels and up-regulation of ob mRNA while reducing significantly the gastric lesions induced by 75% ethanol to the same extent as that induced by exogenous leptin (10 microg/kg i.p.).
Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (release) of CCK in plasma associated with cholecystokinin
19) Confidence 0.69 Published 1999 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10422768 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.53
However, food induced CCK release may be impaired in cP due to maldigestion.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of CCK
20) Confidence 0.69 Published 1989 Journal Z Gastroenterol Section Abstract Doc Link 2609704 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.21

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