INT28662

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Context Info
Confidence 0.65
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 19
Total Number 19
Disease Relevance 16.46
Pain Relevance 4.49

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (PON1) extracellular region (PON1) lipid metabolic process (PON1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
liver 3
body 2
synovial fluid 1
bone marrow 1
skin 1
PON1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
spinal inflammation 222 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 1 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 3 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 2 97.58 Very High Very High Very High
anesthesia 4 94.88 High High
psoriasis 18 90.00 High High
rheumatoid arthritis 62 89.52 High High
Arthritis 37 88.76 High High
Inflammation 109 88.36 High High
Central nervous system 1 83.96 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Low Back Pain 264 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Disorder Of Lipid Metabolism 121 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 1 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 206 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Hereditary Angioedema 133 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Mastocytosis 4 98.54 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 47 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Systemic Sclerosis 107 97.70 Very High Very High Very High
Atherosclerosis 83 97.64 Very High Very High Very High
Pneumoperitoneum 11 97.64 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Animal studies, including PON1-knockout mouse, demonstrated that PON1 deficiency was shown to increase susceptibility to LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis development [8].
Gene_expression (deficiency) of PON1 associated with targeted disruption and atherosclerosis
1) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2936361 Disease Relevance 1.66 Pain Relevance 0.06
In our patients with MCTD, serum triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C did not differ from healthy subjects, while total cholesterol and the ApoA1 levels and serum PON1 activity within the liporpotein fraction were lower compared with controls.
Gene_expression (levels) of serum PON1 associated with systemic sclerosis and disorder of lipid metabolism
2) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2911856 Disease Relevance 1.76 Pain Relevance 0.09
Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether PON and ARE levels may be related to disease activity and functional capacity in AS patients.


Gene_expression (levels) of PON associated with spinal inflammation and disease
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2827704 Disease Relevance 1.44 Pain Relevance 0.70
PON1 in particular is an important endogenous free radical scavenging system in the human body.10 Serum PON1 acts in conjunction with ARE to function as a single enzyme.6,11
Gene_expression (acts) of Serum PON1 in body
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2827704 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.40
PON1 in particular is an important endogenous free radical scavenging system in the human body.10 Serum PON1 acts in conjunction with ARE to function as a single enzyme.6,11
Gene_expression (body.10) of Serum PON1 in body
5) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2827704 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.40
Paraoxonase (PON), an enzyme produced by the liver, is associated with high-density lipoprotein particles and is known to have an antioxidant function.2–4 In humans, the PON gene family has three members (PON1, PON2, and PON3) that are located on chromosome 7q21.3–22.1.5 The physiological roles and natural substrates of these enzymes are not well known.6 PON1 has three known enzymatic molecules, including PON, arylesterase (ARE), and dyazoxonase.
Gene_expression (produced) of Paraoxonase in liver
6) Confidence 0.53 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2827704 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.54
Paraoxonase (PON), an enzyme produced by the liver, is associated with high-density lipoprotein particles and is known to have an antioxidant function.2–4 In humans, the PON gene family has three members (PON1, PON2, and PON3) that are located on chromosome 7q21.3–22.1.5 The physiological roles and natural substrates of these enzymes are not well known.6 PON1 has three known enzymatic molecules, including PON, arylesterase (ARE), and dyazoxonase.
Gene_expression (produced) of PON in liver
7) Confidence 0.53 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2827704 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.54
ARE acts on phenyl acetate to release phenol, which can produce a stable indophenol dye with 4-aminoantipyrine and potassium ferricyanide.8 Human serum PON1 and ARE are both esterase enzymes that have lipophilic antioxidant characteristics.9 These enzymes play a role in decreasing oxidative stress.
Gene_expression (produce) of serum PON1 associated with stress
8) Confidence 0.53 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2827704 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.48
Then, through feedback mechanisms, the expression of PON1 may have been downregulated (Jarvik et al 2003; Rainwater et al 2005).
Gene_expression (expression) of PON1
9) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2663461 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.03
The presence of PON1 on HDL particles is considered to be a major source of protection from lipoprotein oxidation.
Gene_expression (presence) of PON1 associated with disorder of lipid metabolism
10) Confidence 0.38 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2663461 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
However, the bone marrow exhibited the typical picture of mastocytosis, with disseminated clusters of differentiated spindle-shaped cells that stained strongly for tryptase, c-kit, and chloroacetate esterase.
Gene_expression (stained) of chloroacetate esterase in bone marrow associated with mastocytosis
11) Confidence 0.31 Published 1997 Journal Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. Section Abstract Doc Link 9140315 Disease Relevance 1.19 Pain Relevance 0.07
All patients had normal C1-INH concentration and activity with respect to C1 esterase inhibition, ruling out both types of HAE (HAE type I and HAE type II).
Neg (inhibition) Gene_expression (inhibition) of esterase associated with hereditary angioedema
12) Confidence 0.08 Published 2010 Journal Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol Section Body Doc Link PMC2919521 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 0
Elevated esterase levels have been detected in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritic patients providing a mechanism for site-specific release of ester-linked prodrugs (Kar et al 1976).
Gene_expression (detected) of esterase in synovial fluid associated with arthritis
13) Confidence 0.03 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Nanomedicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2626937 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.18
In vitro studies show that paraoxonase lowers levels of oxidized LDL by converting them to biologically inactive products (Rao et al 2003).
Gene_expression (levels) of paraoxonase
14) Confidence 0.03 Published 2006 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1993980 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.06
A third esterase, hydrolase S, is found in rat liver microsomes and rat serum, and may be a serum carboxylesterase secreted from the liver.
Gene_expression (found) of esterase in liver
15) Confidence 0.02 Published 1995 Journal Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8748931 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.14
On the other hand, evidence for expression of the full-length esterase, consistent with a protein product of ~ 60 kDa, was obtained by the MS/MS experiments from gel slices 15 and 16 shown in Figure 1.
Gene_expression (expression) of esterase
16) Confidence 0.01 Published 2007 Journal BMC Genomics Section Body Doc Link PMC1876217 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In addition, high TAS and arylesterase activities occur during the perioperative period in patients undergoing LC in comparison to patients experiencing open procedures under general anesthesia.
Gene_expression (occur) of arylesterase associated with anesthesia
17) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2845769 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.09
In particular, there are consistent decreases in protein, DNA, RNA and neurotransmitter content (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine) [87, 145, 253, 301, 344], enzymatic protein levels (tyrosine hydroxylase, acetylcholine-esterase, choline acetyltransferase, ornithine decarboxylase) [87, 224, 327, 338, 342, 343], and receptor expression (?
Gene_expression (expression) of acetylcholine-esterase associated with dopamine, neurotransmitter and serotonin
18) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2647150 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.64
Lysozyme was more consistently detectable in skin sections in our cases than Leu-M1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, or chloroacetate esterase activity.
Gene_expression (detectable) of chloroacetate esterase in skin
19) Confidence 0.01 Published 1989 Journal Cancer Section Abstract Doc Link 2785843 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.07

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