INT2885

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 2
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 19
Total Number 21
Disease Relevance 9.92
Pain Relevance 8.94

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (CCK) extracellular space (CCK) extracellular region (CCK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 6
fat 4
nerves 2
duodenum 2
bowel 2
CCK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cholecystokinin 321 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Bile 18 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 2 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
spastic colon 78 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 37 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic pancreatitis 25 97.20 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 7 95.84 Very High Very High Very High
vagus nerve 1 95.36 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 8 90.24 High High
celiac plexus 1 89.42 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Critical Illness 144 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Irritable Bowel Syndrome /

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Super

79 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency 46 99.18 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 36 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Steatorrhea 25 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 26 97.20 Very High Very High Very High
Gastric Motility Disorder 17 95.96 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 1 95.24 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 1 95.00 High High
Alcoholic Pancreatitis 1 94.12 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
CONCLUSIONS: Although it significantly increases cholecystokinin secretion, the intraduodenal infusion of long-chain triglycerides does not affect small-bowel transit time, whereas the infusion of medium-chain triglycerides accelerates small-bowel transit time, independent of cholecystokinin.


Positive_regulation (increases) of Localization (secretion) of cholecystokinin in bowel
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1995 Journal JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr Section Body Doc Link 7658601 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Furthermore, because the release of PYY is influenced by CCK, an elevated response would be associated with enhanced CCK secretion.


Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Localization (secretion) of CCK associated with cholecystokinin
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.25
Secondly, suckling and intestinal adsorption of fat from milk stimulates the release of the hormone cholecystokinin [14,15], which activates an afferent vagal mechanism that induces relaxation and pain relief [16].
Positive_regulation (stimulates) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin in fat associated with pain and cholecystokinin
3) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Int Breastfeed J Section Body Doc Link PMC1459116 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.65
Effects of ethanol on meal-stimulated secretion of pancreatic polypeptide and cholecystokinin: comparison of healthy volunteers, heavy drinkers, and patients with chronic pancreatitis.
Positive_regulation (meal-stimulated) of Localization (secretion) of cholecystokinin associated with chronic pancreatitis and cholecystokinin
4) Confidence 0.50 Published 1996 Journal J. Gastroenterol. Section Title Doc Link 8808434 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.50
In humans, free fatty acids rather than triglycerides, when present in the duodenum, stimulate CCK release and gallbladder contraction.
Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (release) of CCK in duodenum associated with cholecystokinin
5) Confidence 0.50 Published 1997 Journal Pancreas Section Abstract Doc Link 8981511 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.17
Previous studies have suggested that intraduodenal protease suppression of pancreatic exocrine secretion may be mediated through cholecystokinin (CCK) release.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (mediated) of Localization (release) of CCK associated with cholecystokinin
6) Confidence 0.50 Published 1985 Journal J. Lab. Clin. Med. Section Abstract Doc Link 3973464 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.42
Integrated CCK secretion in the three groups during bombesin infusion was similar (patients with steatorrhea 134 +/- 23 pM.20 min, patients without steatorrhea 131 +/- 33 pM.20 min, and healthy subjects 146 +/- 28 pM.20 min), indicating a normal capacity to secrete CCK in response to a humoral stimulus.
Positive_regulation (Integrated) of Localization (secretion) of CCK associated with steatorrhea and cholecystokinin
7) Confidence 0.50 Published 1989 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 2772268 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.53
Integrated CCK secretion in the three groups during bombesin infusion was similar (patients with steatorrhea 134 +/- 23 pM.20 min, patients without steatorrhea 131 +/- 33 pM.20 min, and healthy subjects 146 +/- 28 pM.20 min), indicating a normal capacity to secrete CCK in response to a humoral stimulus.
Positive_regulation (during) of Localization (secretion) of CCK associated with steatorrhea and cholecystokinin
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 1989 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 2772268 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.53
Integrated CCK secretion in the three groups during bombesin infusion was similar (patients with steatorrhea 134 +/- 23 pM.20 min, patients without steatorrhea 131 +/- 33 pM.20 min, and healthy subjects 146 +/- 28 pM.20 min), indicating a normal capacity to secrete CCK in response to a humoral stimulus.
Positive_regulation (response) of Localization (secrete) of CCK associated with steatorrhea and cholecystokinin
9) Confidence 0.50 Published 1989 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 2772268 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.44
CCK-excretion was induced by a liquid formula diet with either long- or medium-chain triglycerides (LCT, MCT).
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (excretion) of CCK associated with cholecystokinin
10) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 12927624 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 1.09
This observation is at variance with recent findings that suggest that critically ill patients with feed intolerance have higher plasma CCK and PYY release in response to duodenal nutrients than patients who tolerated feeds [28,29].
Positive_regulation (response) of Localization (release) of CCK in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
11) Confidence 0.50 Published 2007 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2246231 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.20
CCK appears to be an important 'proximal' mediator in that (a) it stimulates the release of PYY [8], (b) fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma CCK are elevated in the critically ill [19], and (c) both fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentrations correlate strongly with CCK.
Positive_regulation (mediator) of Localization (important) of CCK in plasma associated with critical illness and cholecystokinin
12) Confidence 0.48 Published 2006 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1794491 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.25
Previous studies have suggested that intraduodenal protease suppression of pancreatic exocrine secretion may be mediated through cholecystokinin (CCK) release.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (mediated) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin associated with cholecystokinin
13) Confidence 0.44 Published 1985 Journal J. Lab. Clin. Med. Section Abstract Doc Link 3973464 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.42
However, breastfeeding can assist adoptive mothers by stimulating the release of oxytocin, prolactin and cholecystokinin and requiring mothers to maintain physical proximity to their child.
Positive_regulation (stimulating) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin associated with cholecystokinin
14) Confidence 0.43 Published 2006 Journal Int Breastfeed J Section Body Doc Link PMC1459116 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.05
CCK is also found in the nerves of the circular muscle layer of the colon, to some extent in the ileum, and it is abundant in the celiac plexus and vagus nerves.10 Due to these multiple anatomical locations it is not surprising that CCK has been implicated in different physiological functions: gallbladder contraction and pancreatic enzyme secretion, as well as motor and sensory functions at various levels of the gastrointestinal tract such as gastric emptying and colonic motility.11 The role of CCK was first reported by Harvey et al. who have observed CCK to cause an abnormal increase in colonic motility in patients with IBS.12 Further studies have shown that the release of CCK, induced by a fatty meal, acts as a mediator of the gastrocolonic response.13 CCK infusion appears to unmask intestinal dysmotility in patients with IBS.14 Intraduodenal lipids increased visceral sensitivity in both IBS-D and IBS-C patients suggesting a role for CCK at the neuronal level.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of CCK in nerves associated with spastic colon, gastric motility disorder, celiac plexus and cholecystokinin
15) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Section Body Doc Link PMC2879831 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 1.14
In all these patients with pancreatic insufficiency, duodenal perfusion of free fatty acids generated a more pronounced (91 +/- 11 vs. 49 +/- 21 pM) and faster (15 vs. 30 min) (p < 0.05) CCK release than triglycerides.
Positive_regulation (generated) of Localization (release) of CCK associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and cholecystokinin
16) Confidence 0.41 Published 1997 Journal Pancreas Section Abstract Doc Link 8981511 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.29
Somatostatin was able to abolish the stimulated CCK release.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of Localization (release) of CCK associated with bile and somatostatin
17) Confidence 0.40 Published 1977 Journal Clin. Chim. Acta Section Abstract Doc Link 562241 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.84
The concentrations of secretin and CCK in plasma and the pancreatic enzyme and volume secretions were unaffected by the addition of trypsin, but the initial bile acid output and the bicarbonate secretion in the period after gallbladder emptying were reduced during perfusion with trypsin.
Positive_regulation (concentrations) of Localization (secretions) of CCK in plasma associated with bile and cholecystokinin
18) Confidence 0.39 Published 1988 Journal Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3227303 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.29
It is concluded that loperamide inhibits basal and amino acid-stimulated gallbladder motility and intraduodenal output of bilirubin and amylase, despite an enhanced postprandial cholecystokinin release.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin associated with cholecystokinin
19) Confidence 0.36 Published 1997 Journal Hepatology Section Abstract Doc Link 9252131 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13
Ingestion of high amounts of dietary fat induces release of cholecystokinin that binds to cholecystokinin-receptors on vagal afferents and inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-?
Positive_regulation (induces) of Localization (release) of cholecystokinin in fat associated with necrosis, cancer, cholecystokinin and cytokine
20) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal Int J Gen Med Section Body Doc Link PMC3008292 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.50

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