INT29121

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1983
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 23
Total Number 24
Disease Relevance 6.13
Pain Relevance 8.46

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

small molecule metabolic process (DIO2) plasma membrane (DIO2) cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process (DIO2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
finger 2
striatum 1
brain 1
neural 1
DIO2 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 1344 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 407 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 60 95.48 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 1 95.24 Very High Very High Very High
Catechol-O-methyltransferase 17 94.88 High High
Glutamate 15 94.44 High High
substance P 4 94.00 High High
opiate 21 93.48 High High
Substantia nigra 41 93.08 High High
dopamine receptor 119 92.16 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Disease 202 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 152 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Psychosis 25 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Li-fraumeni Syndrome 153 98.46 Very High Very High Very High
Tics 49 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 171 97.56 Very High Very High Very High
Tourette's Syndrome 9 96.48 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 20 90.64 High High
Galactorrhea 124 88.72 High High
Dystonia 73 87.48 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In Parkinson's disease, striatal dopamine D-2 receptors are elevated in patients that have not received L-DOPA therapy.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of D-2 associated with dopamine and disease
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 1987 Journal Can J Neurol Sci Section Abstract Doc Link 2824009 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 1.37
With regard to the behavior of striatal D-2 receptors it was possible to divide parkinsonian patients into two subgroups, because either a decrease or an increase in the number of D-2 receptors was found.
Positive_regulation (increase) of D-2 associated with parkinson's disease
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 1984 Journal Acta Physiol Pharmacol Latinoam Section Abstract Doc Link 6099688 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.40
Dyskinesias, daily fluctuations in performance, and psychotic episodes together with neuroleptic medication, were associated with an increase in the number of striatal D-2 receptors.
Positive_regulation (increase) of D-2 associated with psychosis and dyskinesias
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 1983 Journal J. Neural Transm. Suppl. Section Abstract Doc Link 6308149 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.05
A rationale could be based on the fact that D2 activity increases the intracellular T3 concentration relatively independently of the serum concentration of T3 [3].
Positive_regulation (increases) of D2
4) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal F1000 Med Rep Section Body Doc Link PMC2950057 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0
The nanomolar concentrations of dopamine interact preferentially with D1 receptors (dissociation constant 740 nM (Niznik et al. 1986, p. 8401), whereas micromolar concentrations are needed for prominent D2 receptor activation (dissociation constant 117 ?
Positive_regulation (activation) of D2 associated with dopamine
5) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.48
The contraction is maximally accelerated as all D2 receptors are stimulated.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of D2
6) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.72
According to our hypothesis as movement starts, dopamine first saturates D1 and then D2 receptors.
Positive_regulation (saturates) of D2 associated with dopamine
7) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Enhancement of D2 and, to a lesser degree, D1 receptors by pergolide consolidated tDCS-generated excitability diminution until the morning after stimulation.
Positive_regulation (Enhancement) of D2
8) Confidence 0.25 Published 2006 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 16553629 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
The functional neuroimaging revealed an increased postsynaptic D2 receptor density in striatum (Wong et al. 2008) indicating that these receptors may be involved in the pathogenesis of tics.
Positive_regulation (increased) of D2 in striatum associated with tics
9) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.27
Without D2 activation, acceleration of contraction is blocked, movement acceleration cannot occur, and stepping fails.
Neg (Without) Positive_regulation (activation) of D2
10) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.20
The planning of experimental designs for investigation of differential motor effects associated with either D1 or D2 stimulation requires hypotheses about the specific motor effects separately induced by selective stimulation of either D1 or D2 receptors.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of D2
11) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.10
The planning of experimental designs for investigation of differential motor effects associated with either D1 or D2 stimulation requires hypotheses about the specific motor effects separately induced by selective stimulation of either D1 or D2 receptors.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of D2
12) Confidence 0.23 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.10
As dopamine release is acutely impaired, synaptic concentration cannot achieve a level necessary for micromolar D2 activation.
Positive_regulation (activation) of D2 associated with dopamine
13) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.21
This molecular finding serves as the basis for inducing DA release naturally, also causing the same induction of D2-directed mRNA and thus proliferation of D2 receptors in the human.
Positive_regulation (induction) of D2 associated with dopamine
14) Confidence 0.20 Published 2008 Journal Theor Biol Med Model Section Body Doc Link PMC2615745 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.49
Therefore, if low D2 receptors equate to increased craving behavior then an increase in D2 receptors should result in attenuation of craving behavior.
Positive_regulation (increased) of D2
15) Confidence 0.16 Published 2008 Journal Theor Biol Med Model Section Body Doc Link PMC2615745 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.77
Therefore, if low D2 receptors equate to increased craving behavior then an increase in D2 receptors should result in attenuation of craving behavior.
Positive_regulation (increase) of D2
16) Confidence 0.15 Published 2008 Journal Theor Biol Med Model Section Body Doc Link PMC2615745 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.77
The authors propose that D2 receptor stimulation can be accomplished via the use of Synapatmine™, a natural but therapeutic nutraceutical formulation that potentially induces DA release, causing the same induction of D2-directed mRNA and thus proliferation of D2 receptors in the human.
Positive_regulation (induction) of D2 associated with dopamine
17) Confidence 0.13 Published 2008 Journal Theor Biol Med Model Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2615745 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.40
To explain prolactin elevation with low extrapyramidal symptoms, it has recently been hypothesized that amisulpride may determine a selective higher occupancy of D2/D3 at the pituitary level than at central regions, because of its poor brain barrier permeability (Bressan et al 2004).
Spec (determine) Positive_regulation (occupancy) of D2 in brain
18) Confidence 0.11 Published 2007 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2376090 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.23
These findings demonstrate a clear absence of effects on other fingers than the stimulated d2, which indicates a substantial local specificity of the tactile HFS-induced changes (see Fig. 3).


Positive_regulation (stimulated) of d2 in fingers
19) Confidence 0.09 Published 2008 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2244613 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We found that brief periods of intermittent high-frequency tactile stimulation (t-HFS @ 20 Hz) applied to the skin of the right d2 induced a lowering of 2-point discrimination thresholds on that finger.
Positive_regulation (induced) of d2 in finger
20) Confidence 0.09 Published 2008 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2244613 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0

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