INT292

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Context Info
Confidence 0.81
First Reported 1976
Last Reported 2010
Negated 5
Speculated 36
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 876
Total Number 913
Disease Relevance 88.44
Pain Relevance 669.14

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal cord 74
brain 48
neurons 40
spinal 25
striatum 21
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Penk - A2M (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 5591 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 909 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 588 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 569 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 483 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 462 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 451 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 425 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 306 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 305 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Urological Neuroanatomy 326 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 244 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 185 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 48 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 37 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opiate Addiction 24 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Natriuresis 17 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 17 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 148 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Heart Rate Under Development 7 99.84 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
A technique for the localization of catecholamines and enkephalin in the same tissue section is described.
Localization (localization) of enkephalin associated with catecholamine and enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.81 Published 1979 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 394031 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
The quantity of leucine-enkephalin released by the heart during perfusion was four times higher than the initial content measured in the heart tissue.
Localization (released) of enkephalin in heart associated with enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.81 Published 2001 Journal Arch. Physiol. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11471067 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.65
The effect of ischemia on cardiac Leucine enkephalin (Leu-enk) content, degradation and coronary release was studied in the isolated perfused hearts of male Sprague Dawley rats.
Localization (release) of enkephalin in hearts associated with ischemia and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.81 Published 2001 Journal Arch. Physiol. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11471067 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.41
CONCLUSION: An immortalized rat astrocyte cell line that secrete enkephalin under the control of doxycycline is established successfully, which provides a research basis for transgenic cell transplantation for analgesia.


Localization (secrete) of enkephalin in astrocyte
4) Confidence 0.81 Published 2007 Journal Chin. J. Traumatol. Section Body Doc Link 18045517 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
RESULTS: IAC carrying Tet-on system transfected with preproenkephalin gene could secrete enkephalin that was regulated by doxycycline in a dose-dependent manner and hPPE gene activation could be repeated in on-off-on cycles through administration or removal of doxycycline.
Localization (secrete) of enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.81 Published 2007 Journal Chin. J. Traumatol. Section Body Doc Link 18045517 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These studies establish that ventricular heart muscle ppEnk mRNA can be translated and that enkephalin peptides are secreted from ventricular cardiac muscle cells.
Localization (secreted) of ppEnk mRNA in muscle associated with enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.81 Published 1992 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1279991 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.48
We have also established by radioimmunoassay that enkephalin-containing peptides are secreted from cultured neonatal and adult rat ventricular cardiac muscle cells.
Localization (secreted) of enkephalin in cardiac muscle cells associated with enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.81 Published 1992 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1279991 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.40
Translation of heart preproenkephalin mRNA and secretion of enkephalin peptides from cultured cardiac myocytes.
Localization (secretion) of enkephalin in cardiac myocytes associated with enkephalin
8) Confidence 0.81 Published 1992 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Title Doc Link 1279991 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.39
These studies establish that ventricular heart muscle ppEnk mRNA can be translated and that enkephalin peptides are secreted from ventricular cardiac muscle cells.
Localization (secreted) of enkephalin in muscle associated with enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.81 Published 1992 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1279991 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.48
Proenkephalin expression and enkephalin release are widely observed in non-neuronal tissues.
Localization (release) of enkephalin in neuronal associated with enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.81 Published 2008 Journal Peptides Section Title Doc Link 18082911 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 1.39
The results are discussed with regard to the possible functional significance of enkephalin localization in regions related to regulation of pain, mood, and autonomic function.
Localization (localization) of enkephalin in autonomic associated with pain and enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.81 Published 1982 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7050764 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.82
Using this protocol, the release of Enk and X-Enk (total Enk-Enk) greater and less than 2 kDa from spinal cord and the mesencephalic aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane anesthetized cat.
Localization (release) of Enk-Enk in spinal cord associated with sciatic nerve, enkephalin and spinal cord
12) Confidence 0.81 Published 1990 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2087436 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.29
With the addition of thiorphan (10(-5) M), though there was no effect on the resting release of either Enk or X-Enk, the levels of Enk measured under evoked conditions were significantly augmented in both ventricular and spinal perfusates.
Localization (release) of X-Enk in spinal associated with enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.81 Published 1990 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2087436 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.57
With the addition of thiorphan (10(-5) M), though there was no effect on the resting release of either Enk or X-Enk, the levels of Enk measured under evoked conditions were significantly augmented in both ventricular and spinal perfusates.
Localization (release) of Enk in spinal associated with enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.81 Published 1990 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2087436 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.57
Using this protocol, the release of Enk and X-Enk (total Enk-Enk) greater and less than 2 kDa from spinal cord and the mesencephalic aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane anesthetized cat.
Localization (release) of Enk in spinal cord associated with sciatic nerve, enkephalin and spinal cord
15) Confidence 0.81 Published 1990 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2087436 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.28
Using this protocol, the release of Enk and X-Enk (total Enk-Enk) greater and less than 2 kDa from spinal cord and the mesencephalic aqueductal grey was assessed under resting conditions and during stimulation of the sciatic nerve in the chloralose-urethane anesthetized cat.
Localization (release) of X-Enk in spinal cord associated with sciatic nerve, enkephalin and spinal cord
16) Confidence 0.81 Published 1990 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2087436 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.29
Immunohistochemical localization of enkephalin in rat forebrain.
Localization (localization) of enkephalin in forebrain associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.81 Published 1980 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 6247008 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.64
Ultrastructural localization of enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in developing rat cerebellum.
Localization (localization) of enkephalin-like in cerebellum associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.81 Published 1990 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 2333154 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.68
Discrete localization of enkephalin immunoreactive sites in the rat forebrain was undertaken using animals with and without colchicine pretreatment.
Localization (localization) of enkephalin in forebrain associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.81 Published 1980 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6247008 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.40
The rate of release of enkephalin from rat striatal slices increased 7--10 fold in response to depolarization by 50 mM potassium ions in vitro.
Localization (release) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.81 Published 1978 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 639850 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.37

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