INT2936

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Context Info
Confidence 0.49
First Reported 1978
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 36
Total Number 36
Disease Relevance 9.55
Pain Relevance 3.63

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small molecule metabolic process (AGL) transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups (AGL) carbohydrate metabolic process (AGL)
cytoplasm (AGL) cytosol (AGL) hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds (AGL)
Anatomy Link Frequency
liver 5
muscle fibers 2
urine 2
plasma 1
hepatocytes 1
AGL (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Paracetamol 28 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
tetrodotoxin 8 98.08 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 18 96.68 Very High Very High Very High
lidocaine 3 72.32 Quite High
local anesthetic 2 71.40 Quite High
abdominal pain 1 65.60 Quite High
nud 1 61.76 Quite High
positron emission tomography 8 59.84 Quite High
imagery 25 54.24 Quite High
addiction 50 40.32 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Hyperglycemia 55 99.06 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 26 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
Glycogen Storage Disease 25 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 133 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 83 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 7 96.68 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 43 96.50 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 44 94.96 High High
Congenital Anomalies 15 92.00 High High
Hepatomegaly 8 91.28 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Four methods have been introduced to estimate its extent in liver in humans. 1) In the fasted state, the rate of net hepatic glycogenolysis, i.e., glycogen breakdown minus synthesis, is estimated using NMR, and the rate of glycogenolysis is estimated from deuterium labeling of blood glucose on (2)H(2)O ingestion. 2) The rate of glycogen synthesis is estimated from the rate of labeling of carbon 1 of glycogen on [1-(13)C]glucose infusion, monitored by NMR, and the rate of breakdown from the rate of disappearance of that labeling on unlabeled glucose infusion. 3) The rate of synthesis from glucose-1-P, formed by glycogenolysis, is measured by the decrease in the (3)H/(14)C ratio in acetaminophen glucuronide on acetaminophen and [2-(3)H,6-(14)C]galactose administration. 4) The rate of synthesis is estimated from the dilution of label from labeled galactose in its conversion to the acetaminophen glucuronide, and the rate of glycogenolysis is estimated from the amount of label in blood glucose.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen in blood associated with paracetamol
1) Confidence 0.49 Published 2001 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 11500295 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.25
The ratio of 3H to 14C in the glucuronide of the acetaminophen excreted in urine to that in the administered galactose provides the measure of the fraction of glycogen synthesized that is synthesized from glucose-1-P formed from glycogen.
Gene_expression (synthesized) of glycogen in urine associated with paracetamol
2) Confidence 0.36 Published 1991 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 1861637 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.19
It is assumed that the glucuronide samples the UDP-glucose pool in liver from which glycogen is formed, the last glucosyl units formed from UDP-glucose in glycogen synthesis are the first broken down, and the equilibration of [2-3H]glucose-1-P with fructose-6-P is rapid relative to its conversion to UDP-glucose.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen in liver
3) Confidence 0.36 Published 1991 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 1861637 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.16
During a 5-hour period, while three normal subjects and three non-insulin-dependent diabetics, who had fasted overnight, were infused with 4 mg/kg/min of glucose, the rate of glycogen breakdown, as measured using the method, was only a small percentage of the rate of glycogen synthesis.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen associated with diabetes mellitus
4) Confidence 0.36 Published 1991 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 1861637 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.13
The ratio of 3H to 14C in the glucuronide of the acetaminophen excreted in urine to that in the administered galactose provides the measure of the fraction of glycogen synthesized that is synthesized from glucose-1-P formed from glycogen.
Gene_expression (synthesized) of glycogen in urine associated with paracetamol
5) Confidence 0.36 Published 1991 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 1861637 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.19
In lean males, neither glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen, nor glycogen balance differed between control and acipimox studies.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen
6) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.09
Glycogen synthesis did not change in either study.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of Glycogen
7) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.08
This study demonstrates that in obese males physiological levels of FFA contribute to the retention of hepatic glycogen during short-term fasting by inhibiting breakdown of glycogen and increasing glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen, whereas in lean males this effect was absent due to unaltered glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen.
Neg (absent) Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen associated with obesity
8) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.05
In lean males, neither glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen, nor glycogen balance differed between control and acipimox studies.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen
9) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.09
This study demonstrates that in obese males physiological levels of FFA contribute to the retention of hepatic glycogen during short-term fasting by inhibiting breakdown of glycogen and increasing glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen, whereas in lean males this effect was absent due to unaltered glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen associated with obesity
10) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.06
Glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen did not change in acipimox study, but increased in the control study (P = .03).
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen
11) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.07
This study demonstrates that in obese males physiological levels of FFA contribute to the retention of hepatic glycogen during short-term fasting by inhibiting breakdown of glycogen and increasing glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen, whereas in lean males this effect was absent due to unaltered glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of glycogen associated with obesity
12) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.06
Our analysis shows that the conformation space accessible to the paracetamol molecule at 317 K in the vicinity of glycogen is smaller than the one in the absence of glycogen.
Neg (absence) Gene_expression (absence) of glycogen associated with paracetamol
13) Confidence 0.34 Published 2005 Journal Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys Section Abstract Doc Link 16089542 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.50
Glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen did not change in acipimox study, but increased in the control study (P = .03).
Gene_expression (synthesis) of Glycogen
14) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 15254882 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.07
Such schedules are designed to induce a ‘glycogen supercompensation’ effect, whereby glycogen depletion and carbohydrate restriction stimulate increased expression of glycogen synthase in the depleted muscle fibers, enhancing their ability to synthesize glycogen during the final, high-carbohydrate-diet phase, permitting muscle fibers to store glycogen in supranormal concentrations.
Gene_expression (expression) of glycogen in muscle fibers
15) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Computational Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2958805 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Such schedules are designed to induce a ‘glycogen supercompensation’ effect, whereby glycogen depletion and carbohydrate restriction stimulate increased expression of glycogen synthase in the depleted muscle fibers, enhancing their ability to synthesize glycogen during the final, high-carbohydrate-diet phase, permitting muscle fibers to store glycogen in supranormal concentrations.
Gene_expression (synthesize) of glycogen in muscle fibers
16) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Computational Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2958805 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
This biochemical feedback network forestalls complete glycogen depletion, but simultaneously decreases the energy efficiency of oxygen utilization.
Gene_expression (depletion) of glycogen
17) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Computational Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2958805 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
The reason for this difference between liver and muscle glycogen reserves is that myocytes, in contrast to hepatocytes, lack the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase that catalyzes the final reaction of glycogenolysis and permits membrane glucose transporters to liberate intracellular glucose.
Gene_expression (reserves) of glycogen in muscle
18) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Computational Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2958805 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Experimental evidence also suggests that midrace fueling extends endurance capacity by increasing the proportion of oxidized carbohydrate derived from plasma glucose as opposed to intramuscular glycogen [31], and correspondingly reducing the rate of intramuscular glycogen depletion [32].
Gene_expression (depletion) of glycogen in plasma
19) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Computational Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2958805 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This combination of tracers allows three separate elements of hepatic glucose production (GP) to be probed simultaneously in a single study: 1) endogenous GP, 2) the contribution of glycogen, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and glycerol to GP, and 3) flux through PEP carboxykinase, pyruvate recycling, and the TCA cycle.
Gene_expression (contribution) of glycogen
20) Confidence 0.18 Published 2001 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 11551863 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09

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