INT29372

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1985
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 18
Total Number 18
Disease Relevance 7.23
Pain Relevance 1.01

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (GIP) small molecule metabolic process (GIP) extracellular region (GIP)
cytoplasm (GIP)
Anatomy Link Frequency
gum 4
small intestine 3
intestine 2
blood 1
fat 1
GIP (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
agonist 35 94.28 High High
Enkephalin 1 91.92 High High
Paracetamol 9 91.48 High High
tolerance 19 84.44 Quite High
Central nervous system 5 37.04 Quite Low
potassium channel 4 23.00 Low Low
Neuropeptide 8 22.16 Low Low
adenocard 6 15.80 Low Low
headache 15 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
chemokine 4 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Diabetes Mellitus 430 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 23 88.52 High High
Impaired Glucose Tolerance 19 84.96 Quite High
Obesity 45 83.72 Quite High
Body Weight 32 81.92 Quite High
Disease 44 80.64 Quite High
Hypoglycemia 80 76.88 Quite High
Hyperglycemia 20 75.52 Quite High
Prediabetic State 3 65.08 Quite High
Disease Progression 6 63.88 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Almost 50% of this degradation occurs at the intestinal capillaries close to the site of GLP-1 and GIP release.
Localization (release) of GIP
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2597770 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0
The observed augmentation of gastrin secretion by guar gum following a protein meal could be due either to the buffering capacity of guar gum or to the attenuation of GIP secretion.
Localization (secretion) of GIP in gum
2) Confidence 0.63 Published 1985 Journal Br. J. Nutr. Section Abstract Doc Link 4063284 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
Incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is mainly secreted by the K cells in the duodenum and the proximal small intestine and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the L cells of the distal gut.
Localization (secreted) of Incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in small intestine
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2878957 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.11
Incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is mainly secreted by the K cells in the duodenum and the proximal small intestine and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the L cells of the distal gut.
Localization (secreted) of GIP in small intestine
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2878957 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0.10
Specifically, it has been demonstrated that the endogenous human incretin hormone GLP-1 decreases blood glucose by several pathways – via the regulation of insulin and glucagon, inhibition of gastric emptying, and suppression of appetite, and that the normal physiologic response to GLP-1 is impaired in type 2 diabetes.9,10,11 GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner and suppresses glucagon secretion.10 In normal physiology, oral ingestion of nutrients stimulates GIP and GLP-1 secretion, which in turn increases insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells.
Localization (secretion) of GIP in blood associated with diabetes mellitus
5) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2878957 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.08
Secreted by K cells of the small intestine, GIP is also known to stimulate insulin secretion; individuals with type 2 diabetes appear to have a diminished response to this hormone, rather than being deficient in its production (Holst 2002; Drucker 2003).


Localization (Secreted) of GIP in small intestine associated with diabetes mellitus
6) Confidence 0.59 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2597758 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0
GIP is a 42 amino acid polypeptide, which originates from the intestinal K-cells localized mainly in the duodenum.
Localization (localized) of GIP in duodenum
7) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2597770 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.03
The effect of incorporating guar gum into predominantly single-component meals of carbohydrate, fat or protein on liquid gastric emptying and on the secretion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), gastrin and motilin, was studied in healthy human volunteers.
Localization (secretion) of GIP in gum
8) Confidence 0.55 Published 1985 Journal Br. J. Nutr. Section Abstract Doc Link 4063284 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
The effect of incorporating guar gum into predominantly single-component meals of carbohydrate, fat or protein on liquid gastric emptying and on the secretion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), gastrin and motilin, was studied in healthy human volunteers.
Localization (secretion) of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in gum
9) Confidence 0.55 Published 1985 Journal Br. J. Nutr. Section Abstract Doc Link 4063284 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
Postprandial GIP secretion was also reduced by addition of guar gum to the protein meal, but protein-stimulated gastrin secretion was enhanced by guar gum.
Localization (secretion) of GIP in gum
10) Confidence 0.48 Published 1985 Journal Br. J. Nutr. Section Abstract Doc Link 4063284 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
Postprandial GIP secretion and plasma motilin levels were unaffected by addition of guar gum to the fat meal. 5 and 10 g guar gum/l solutions in water possessed buffering capacities between pH 2.75 and 5.5.
Localization (secretion) of GIP in fat
11) Confidence 0.48 Published 1985 Journal Br. J. Nutr. Section Abstract Doc Link 4063284 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
-cell secretion of glucagon; increased glucose reabsorption by the kidneys; alterations in brain pathways involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety; and possibly decreased activity of incretin hormones (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulin-releasing polypeptide [GIP]).11,15

Role of incretin therapy in treating the pathophysiology of T2DM

Localization (releasing) of GIP in brain associated with diabetes mellitus
12) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC2963920 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0
GIP is secreted by K cells from the upper small intestine and GLP-1 is mainly produced in the enteroendocrine L cells located in the distal intestine.
Localization (secreted) of GIP in intestine
13) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC2963920 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0
The incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide, later often also referred to as glucose insulinotropic polypeptide) are secreted postprandially from the endocrine L- and K-cells in the intestinal mucosa respectively.
Localization (secreted) of GIP
14) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal Pediatr Nephrol Section Body Doc Link PMC2874027 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.05
The specificity of the VIP effect was tested with peptides structurally related to VIP such as glucagon, secretin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and human growth-hormone releasing factor.
Localization (releasing) of gastric inhibitory polypeptide
15) Confidence 0.25 Published 1987 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 2829291 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous glucagon in addition to its well-documented action of increasing glucose and insulin concentrations and delaying gastric emptying also markedly reduces GIP and GLP-1 secretion.
Localization (secretion) of GIP
16) Confidence 0.09 Published 1999 Journal Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. Section Body Doc Link 10634963 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Effect of glucagon on carbohydrate-mediated secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36 amide) (GLP-1).
Localization (secretion) of GIP
17) Confidence 0.08 Published 1999 Journal Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. Section Title Doc Link 10634963 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.17
This insulinotropic hormone is released from the L cells in the intestine in response to meals [5] to stimulate insulin secretion and decrease glucagon secretion [5, 6].
Localization (released) of insulinotropic in intestine
18) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2997321 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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