INT30014

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1988
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 22
Total Number 27
Disease Relevance 20.91
Pain Relevance 4.09

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds (HPSE) extracellular region (HPSE) cell adhesion (HPSE)
nucleus (HPSE) carbohydrate metabolic process (HPSE) lysosome (HPSE)
Anatomy Link Frequency
amygdala 2
hippocampus 2
pituitary 2
visceral 1
neural 1
HPSE (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Chronic pancreatitis 1 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 118 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 110 99.22 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 8 99.14 Very High Very High Very High
depression 561 98.22 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 85 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
anesthesia 4 95.80 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 13 95.64 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory response 12 95.00 High High
Endocannabinoid 100 94.96 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 708 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 1 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Vomiting 166 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatic Cancer 6 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 813 98.22 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 7 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 32 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 22 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 90 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
Schizophrenia 332 97.24 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Intraoperative HPA activation can be moderate in degree and the mild cortisol elevation observed is compatible with an uneventful perioperative course.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1988 Journal Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2852458 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.13
Matsumoto and colleagues showed that in the dog, degranulation of mast cells evoked HPA activation in response to histamine release [109].
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA in mast cells
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2005 Journal Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol Section Body Doc Link PMC2877069 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.31
CONCLUSIONS: Naloxone mediated activation of the HPA is attenuated in CFS.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 1998 Journal Psychol Med Section Body Doc Link 9572086 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0
By real-time quantitative PCR, there was a 7.9- and 30.2-fold increase of hpa mRNA in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer tissue samples, respectively, in comparison with normal pancreatic tissues.
Positive_regulation (increase) of hpa associated with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 2001 Journal Cancer Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 11406531 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.15
Surgical stress is associated with activation of both the HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA in sympathetic nervous system associated with stress
5) Confidence 0.41 Published 1988 Journal Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2852458 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.12
However, the similarities, both in reduced HPA activation, symptomatology, and abrupt stress-related onset, suggest otherwise.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA associated with stress
6) Confidence 0.23 Published 2004 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC416440 Disease Relevance 1.47 Pain Relevance 0.31
In this study, we examined children’s cortisol response to acute stress (the glucocorticoid product of HPA activation) in relation to low-level prenatal and postnatal Pb exposure.


Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA associated with stress
7) Confidence 0.21 Published 2008 Journal Environ Health Perspect Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2235205 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
Evidence is accumulating rapidly that stress related chronic stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and resulting excess glucocorticoid exposure may play a potential role in the development of visceral obesity.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of HPA in visceral associated with stress and obesity
8) Confidence 0.20 Published 2007 Journal Physiol. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 17543357 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0
Increased HPA axis activity is associated with a number of emotional, behavioral, and physical problems in children (Charmandari et al. 2003).
Positive_regulation (Increased) of HPA
9) Confidence 0.18 Published 2008 Journal Environ Health Perspect Section Body Doc Link PMC2235205 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.10
Pb-induced increases in HPA reactivity in children are likely to have far-reaching consequences.
Positive_regulation (increases) of HPA
10) Confidence 0.18 Published 2008 Journal Environ Health Perspect Section Body Doc Link PMC2235205 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0
Psychological stress stimulates the HPA axis via AVP (Romero and Sapolsky, 1996) which may be diminished in schizophrenia patients (Marx and Leiberman, 1998), resulting in a blunted cortisol response to psychological stress.
Positive_regulation (stimulates) of HPA associated with stress and schizophrenia
11) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Section Body Doc Link PMC2951595 Disease Relevance 1.36 Pain Relevance 0
For example, a recent study showed that naltrexone not only includes an opioid-receptor blockade, but that it indirectly increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) activity, resulting in higher adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, which may in turn be partially responsible for the effect of naltrexone on drinking and craving.54

Pharmacogenomics: µ-Opioid Receptor Polymorphism

Positive_regulation (increased) of HPA in pituitary associated with opioid
12) Confidence 0.14 Published 2006 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2687624 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.31
In the study reported by Jansen et al. (2000), the cortisol response in schizophrenia patients to a physical stress, exercise, was not different from controls, and they suggest the blunted cortisol response to a psychological stress could be due to the different mechanisms of HPA axis activation to different types of stress.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA associated with stress and schizophrenia
13) Confidence 0.12 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Section Body Doc Link PMC2951595 Disease Relevance 1.57 Pain Relevance 0
The complexities of stressor-induced activation of the HPA and SAM (also known as sympathetic nervous system—SNS) have been comprehensively reviewed in other publications [25–27], and an abbreviated summary of the neural pathways provoked by stressors is provided here.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA in neural
14) Confidence 0.11 Published 2009 Journal J Ocul Biol Dis Infor Section Body Doc Link PMC2723676 Disease Relevance 3.14 Pain Relevance 0.14
The negative correlation between ethanol intake and ACTH levels supports the notion that naltrexone's effect of increasing HPA axis activity may be related to its ability to suppress ethanol consumption.


Positive_regulation (increasing) of HPA
15) Confidence 0.10 Published 2004 Journal Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. Section Body Doc Link 15100607 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Oral ethanol consumption in humans increases hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, and recent studies suggest that naltrexone may reduce ethanol consumption by modifying the HPA-stimulating effects of ethanol.
Positive_regulation (increases) of HPA in pituitary
16) Confidence 0.10 Published 2004 Journal Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15100607 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.14
Moynihan describes that activation of SAM and the HPA may have profound and complex downstream effects on immune function.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA
17) Confidence 0.10 Published 2009 Journal J Ocul Biol Dis Infor Section Body Doc Link PMC2723676 Disease Relevance 2.86 Pain Relevance 0.26
In mammals, increased HPA function is associated with sleep disruption and REM sleep abnormalities.
Positive_regulation (increased) of HPA associated with congenital anomalies
18) Confidence 0.07 Published 2004 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC449897 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
First, as well as standard psychological assessment and background information, induction to therapy for depression might include blood or saliva tests for hypercortisolaemia as an indicator of prolonged HPA activation that may lead to organic changes to the PFC, hippocampus and amygdala.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA in saliva associated with depression, hippocampus and amygdala
19) Confidence 0.06 Published 2010 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC3009949 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.32
Built upon the notions of sickness behaviour as providing a benefit to the infected organism, the concomitant neurobiological alterations to structure and function of various brain regions (principally the PFC, hippocampus and amygdala) that accompany elevated HPA-axis activation following the onset of uncontrollable and highly aversive environmental stressors, may be seen to link observable behaviour with brain function to provide a more comprehensive model of depression.
Positive_regulation (activation) of HPA in amygdala associated with depression, hippocampus and amygdala
20) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC3009949 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.23

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