INT302340

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Context Info
Confidence 0.64
First Reported 2010
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 2
Total Number 14
Disease Relevance 3.43
Pain Relevance 2.15

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell differentiation (Dlx2) nucleus (Dlx2) DNA binding (Dlx2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neuronal 6
neurons 6
cortex 6
interneurons 4
ventral telencephalon 2
Dlx2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
GABAergic 543 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
cerebral cortex 367 98.14 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 52 94.60 High High
interneuron 109 88.36 High High
gABA 36 88.12 High High
Action potential 91 41.20 Quite Low
Neurotransmitter 41 40.48 Quite Low
Potency 26 37.48 Quite Low
imagery 130 25.52 Quite Low
Dopamine 1 16.08 Low Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neurodegenerative Disease 234 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 481 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 143 91.88 High High
Stab Wounds 65 68.40 Quite High
Stuttering 26 54.68 Quite High
Targeted Disruption 46 36.72 Quite Low
Epilepsy 27 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Brain Injury 26 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Vesicular Stomatitis 26 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Intellectual Impairment 14 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Taken together, our data provide evidence that postnatal astroglia from the cerebral cortex can be driven towards the generation of interneurons with distinct functional properties by forced expression of Dlx2 or Dlx2 in combination with Mash1.


Positive_regulation (forced) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in interneurons associated with cerebral cortex
1) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.16
The above finding that Neurog2 or Dlx2 overexpression can induce with high efficiency the generation of functional neurons from postnatal astroglia-derived neurosphere cells prompted us to examine whether reactive astroglia from the adult cortex following injury can also be reprogrammed to generate functional neurons after prior expansion as neurospheres.
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of Dlx2 in neurons associated with injury
2) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.08
In contrast, co-expression of Mash1 and Dlx2 significantly augmented neurogenesis from postnatal astroglia (93.0%±3.1% of ?
Positive_regulation (augmented) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 associated with neurodegenerative disease
3) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.17
Taken together, these data strongly indicate that forced expression of Dlx2, in sharp contrast to Neurog2, can induce the reprogramming of astroglia from the postnatal cortex towards a GABAergic phenotype.
Positive_regulation (forced) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in cortex associated with gabaergic
4) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.32
Consistent with a more efficient reprogramming via a strong and silencing-resistant retroviral expression system, we found that forced expression of Neurog2 or Dlx2 endowed astroglia-derived neurons not only with the ability to receive synaptic input but also to form functional presynaptic output onto other astroglia-derived neurons to such degree as generating networks of spontaneously active neurons.
Positive_regulation (forced) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in neurons
5) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0
Taken together, these data show that some postnatal cortical astroglia can be redirected by forced expression of Dlx2 towards a neuronal identity; however, in sharp contrast to the progressive maturation of Neurog2-transduced cells, most of the astroglia-derived neurons reprogrammed by Dlx2 remain in a rather immature state, suggesting a comparatively less efficient reprogramming by Dlx2.
Positive_regulation (forced) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in neuronal
6) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.05
Taken together, our data provide evidence that postnatal astroglia from the cerebral cortex can be driven towards the generation of interneurons with distinct functional properties by forced expression of Dlx2 or Dlx2 in combination with Mash1.


Positive_regulation (forced) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in interneurons associated with cerebral cortex
7) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.16
Surprisingly, the high input resistance of Dlx2-expressing neurons did not decrease but even slightly increased with time in culture (Figure S2B; 2,786.4±440.3 M?
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (neurons) of Dlx2-expressing in neurons
8) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.03
Upon forced expression of Dlx2, a substantial number of postnatal cortical astroglia were redirected towards a neuronal identity as revealed by ?
Positive_regulation (forced) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in neuronal
9) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.11
Upon forced expression of Dlx2, a substantial number of postnatal cortical astroglia were redirected towards a neuronal identity as revealed by ?
Positive_regulation (Upon) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in neuronal
10) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.11
Taken together, these data strongly indicate that forced expression of Dlx2, in sharp contrast to Neurog2, can induce the reprogramming of astroglia from the postnatal cortex towards a GABAergic phenotype.
Positive_regulation (induce) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in cortex associated with gabaergic
11) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.32
Conversely, following forced expression of Dlx2, we could observe the generation of functional GABAergic neurons from adult cortex-derived neurosphere cells, indicating that the same dichotomy of subtype specification observed in postnatal astroglia also holds true for adult cortex-derived neurosphere cells following injury.
Positive_regulation (forced) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in cortex associated with gabaergic and injury
12) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.08
As the homeobox transcription factor Dlx2 is one of the key factors involved in GABAergic neuron specification in the developing ventral telencephalon [13] and in adult neurogenesis [26], we examined whether forced expression of Dlx2 is also sufficient to induce a neuronal and possibly a GABAergic fate in cortical astroglia.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (sufficient) of Gene_expression (expression) of Dlx2 in ventral telencephalon associated with gabaergic and neurodegenerative disease
13) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872647 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.18
In contrast, Dlx2 electroporation in Arx-deficient brain slices induces GAD65 expression, suggesting that Arx is necessary to promote Dlx-dependent GABAergic cell migration, but is dispensable for Dlx ability to induce GABAergic cell fate commitment (Colasante et al., 2008).
Positive_regulation (induces) of Gene_expression (electroporation) of Dlx2 in brain associated with gabaergic
14) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2841486 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38

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