INT30317

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Context Info
Confidence 0.43
First Reported 1981
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 14
Total Number 15
Disease Relevance 7.27
Pain Relevance 5.38

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

pigmentation (TH) cytosol (TH) mitochondrion (TH)
small molecule metabolic process (TH) nucleus (TH) cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process (TH)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neuronal 2
brains 1
brainstem 1
neuroblasts 1
glial cells 1
TH (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 351 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
medulla 14 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 5 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 119 99.06 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 105 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Thalamus 2 98.28 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 7 97.64 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 2 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 9 97.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 1 96.92 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Restless Legs Syndrome 588 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Death 5 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 15 92.16 High High
Thyroid Disease 49 89.84 High High
Stress 2 89.84 High High
Alcohol Addiction 1 87.76 High High
Sleep Disorders 154 87.44 High High
Dystonia 4 82.00 Quite High
Urological Neuroanatomy 1 81.92 Quite High
Dysphagia 2 81.04 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The neuroblasts of the ganglia showed intense peroxidase immunoreactivity for TH, moderate reaction to DBH, and no reaction to PNMT.
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of TH in neuroblasts
1) Confidence 0.43 Published 1981 Journal Cell Tissue Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6162566 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.60
Similarly, no changes in the activities of choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase or MAO-B were observed in brains of alcoholics as compared to the control population.
Neg (no) Regulation (changes) of tyrosine hydroxylase in brains
2) Confidence 0.35 Published 1985 Journal Alcohol Section Abstract Doc Link 2862881 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.38
To determine whether the TH-immunoreactive cell loss in the SN of the current study was indicative of a down-regulation of TH or frank neuronal cell loss, stereological assessment of NeuN-positive cells was performed [22,36,37].
Regulation (regulation) of TH in neuronal associated with substantia nigra
3) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal Mol Neurodegener Section Body Doc Link PMC2984491 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.23
The LC levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and galanin neuronal contents were not affected.
Neg (not) Regulation (affected) of tyrosine hydroxylase in neuronal associated with locus ceruleus
4) Confidence 0.23 Published 2000 Journal Brain Res Cogn Brain Res Section Abstract Doc Link 10978698 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.35
-syn showed significant reductions in TH-OD compared to AAV1/2-EV (P < 0.01) and AAV-1/2-GFP treated groups (P < 0.01), while no change in TH-OD was observed in animals that received AAV1/2 GFP compared to EV controls (P > 0.05, NS) (Figure 5).
Neg (no) Regulation (change) of TH
5) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal Mol Neurodegener Section Body Doc Link PMC2984491 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
For example, one must also take into account the modulation of TH by the DA system, which cannot be assumed to always be impaired.
Regulation (modulation) of TH associated with dopamine
6) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2882550 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.12
As many patients with normal iron levels have RLS, one cannot assume that elevated TH and low iron levels are the main dysregulations that cause RLS.
Regulation (dysregulations) of TH associated with restless legs syndrome
7) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2882550 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.07
Evidence that tyrosine and tyramine were, in part, being converted to dopamine then morphine, and that this process can be inhibited by altering either or both CYP2D6 or tyrosine hydroxylase, is also provided.
Regulation (altering) of tyrosine hydroxylase
8) Confidence 0.04 Published 2005 Journal Med. Sci. Monit. Section Body Doc Link 16258388 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
It is important to also consider data previously published in the medical literature demonstrating that DA modulates TH, that is, DA depresses the TH axis.14–16 Because the DA system enhances CYP450 activity and TH is a substrate for CYP450 enzymatic activity, it is possible to infer that one way that the DA system can modulate TH is via CYP450: the activation of CYP450 down-regulates TH.17 Furthermore, DA and DA agonists inhibit TSH secretion.16 CYP450 isoforms are expressed in the liver and other peripheral organs, and also in glial cells and neurons in the brain18 (Figure 1).


Regulation (regulates) of TH in neurons associated with dopamine and agonist
9) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2882550 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.42
In the brainstem, immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, and calbindin-D28K was severely reduced throughout the brainstem in all the XPA cases.
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of tyrosine hydroxylase in brainstem associated with medulla
10) Confidence 0.03 Published 2004 Journal J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15535132 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.62
The large cell neurons in the putamen were preferentially reduced, the immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase reflecting the dopaminergic afferent and efferent pathways was severely affected, and the expression of 3 calcium binding proteins (i.e. parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and calretinin) was disturbed in various ways.
Regulation (affected) of tyrosine hydroxylase in putamen
11) Confidence 0.03 Published 2004 Journal J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15535132 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.84
RLS is more common in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women,5 and endocrinological studies in pregnancy have revealed that TH are up regulated during pregnancy.40 This phenomenon supports the hypothesis proposed here, although it is possible that other conditions might be involved in the greater prevalence of RLS during pregnancy.
Regulation (regulated) of TH associated with restless legs syndrome
12) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2882550 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 0.39
One mechanism by which TH is modulated by the DA system is through enhancement of the biochemical functions of the complex family of the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes.
Regulation (modulated) of TH associated with dopamine
13) Confidence 0.02 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2882550 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.58
TH levels follow DA levels14–16 Thus, the depressing effects of DA on TH are a concern in certain clinical settings.27–29 Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) regulates TSH synthesis by stimulating the transcription and translation of the TSH ?
Regulation (effects) of TH in Thyroid associated with dopamine
14) Confidence 0.02 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2882550 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.34
It is important to also consider data previously published in the medical literature demonstrating that DA modulates TH, that is, DA depresses the TH axis.14–16 Because the DA system enhances CYP450 activity and TH is a substrate for CYP450 enzymatic activity, it is possible to infer that one way that the DA system can modulate TH is via CYP450: the activation of CYP450 down-regulates TH.17 Furthermore, DA and DA agonists inhibit TSH secretion.16 CYP450 isoforms are expressed in the liver and other peripheral organs, and also in glial cells and neurons in the brain18 (Figure 1).


Regulation (regulates) of TH in glial cells associated with dopamine and agonist
15) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Clinics (Sao Paulo) Section Body Doc Link PMC2882550 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.42

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