INT31368

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Context Info
Confidence 0.51
First Reported 1976
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 19
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 2.20
Pain Relevance 12.68

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Th) mitochondrion (Th) nucleus (Th)
response to stress (Th) cytoplasm (Th)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 4
hippocampus 4
neurons 4
liver 2
nucleus 2
Th (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Morphine 70 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 12 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 22 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Action potential 3 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
orphanin 4 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 27 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 20 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
tetrodotoxin 3 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 9 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 1 96.16 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 1 95.28 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 1 93.56 High High
Opiate Addiction 2 93.00 High High
Heart Rate Under Development 2 79.92 Quite High
Ganglion Cysts 9 77.68 Quite High
Paralysis 1 75.20 Quite High
Toxicity 1 73.60 Quite High
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 3 66.80 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Moreover, morphine withdrawal induces Fos expression, an enhancement of NA turnover and an increase in the total TH levels.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Positive_regulation (increase) of TH associated with noradrenaline, withdrawal and morphine
1) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17216288 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 1.57
Since sulpiride fails to inhibit DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase, it may be concluded that DA receptors, whose blockade results in increased dopaminergic firing and TH activation, are not coupled with this enzyme.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Positive_regulation (activation) of TH
2) Confidence 0.50 Published 1983 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 6133578 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.21
Taken together these results suggest an increased number of NE terminals and an increase in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Positive_regulation (increase) of tyrosine hydroxylase
3) Confidence 0.50 Published 1987 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2890404 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.69
The canonical CRE motif of the TH promoter was also found necessary for transcriptional activation of the TH gene by butyrate.
Positive_regulation (necessary) of Positive_regulation (activation) of TH gene
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 2005 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 16165221 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.16
We investigated the relationships between the activation of the c-fos gene and the activation of the Penk and TH genes in both rat hippocampus and adrenal using a commonly used model, metrazole (MTZ)-induced convulsions.
Spec (investigated) Positive_regulation (activation) of Spec (investigated) Positive_regulation (activation) of TH in hippocampus associated with convulsion and hippocampus
5) Confidence 0.49 Published 1993 Journal Mol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8102782 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.18
As in the rat, MTZ produced a dose-dependent induction of c-fos mRNA in the hamster adrenal and hippocampus together with an increase in adrenal TH mRNA.
Positive_regulation (induction) of Positive_regulation (increase) of TH mRNA in hippocampus associated with hippocampus
6) Confidence 0.48 Published 1995 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 7501282 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
Prolonged elevations of EPI found after PH seems to be specific for liver regeneration indicating that the rise in the adrenal TH mRNA appears to be translated into immunoreactive protein which further leads to the elevation of TH activity.
Positive_regulation (leads) of Positive_regulation (elevation) of TH in liver
7) Confidence 0.47 Published 1999 Journal Endocr Regul Section Body Doc Link 10700082 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The percentage of c-Fos positive TH neurons in the arcute nucleus increased in rats treated with NAL for 5 h after return of pups, but not in rats treated with NAL for 2 h.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of Positive_regulation (percentage) of TH in nucleus associated with narcan
8) Confidence 0.46 Published 2004 Journal Endocrine Section Abstract Doc Link 15711026 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
In contrast to nicotinic cholinomimetics which generate action potentials in postganglionic adrenergic neurons, general non-specific depolarizing agents such as veratridine and batrachotoxin (which also generate action potentials) do not initiate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) induction.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (initiate) of Neg (not) Positive_regulation (induction) of tyrosine hydroxylase in adrenergic neurons associated with action potential
9) Confidence 0.44 Published 1976 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 19604822 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.37
The present findings demonstrate that the enhancement of total TH expression and the increase of the phosphorylation state of TH during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and ERK and suggest that these transduction pathways might contribute to the activation of the cardiac catecholaminergic neurons in response to morphine- withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of Positive_regulation (increase) of TH in neurons associated with withdrawal and morphine
10) Confidence 0.44 Published 2009 Journal Basic Res. Cardiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19104749 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.09
Both the increase in DOPA accumulation and the stable activation of tyrosine hydroxylase are dependent upon extracellular Ca2+.
Positive_regulation (dependent) of Positive_regulation (activation) of tyrosine hydroxylase
11) Confidence 0.42 Published 1984 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 6141219 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.11
Repeated stress elevated expression of all the genes studied and increased TH immunoreactivity in both ganglia.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Positive_regulation (increased) of TH in ganglia associated with stress
12) Confidence 0.39 Published 1996 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 8940389 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.31
The results suggest (a) that there are serotonergic and cholinergic (muscarinic) receptors in the lower thoracic cord generating a net inhibitory action on tyrosine hydroxylase activity; and (b) that increases of tyrosine hydroxylase activity mediated by dopaminergic drugs probably originate from areas rostral to the thoracic cord.
Spec (probably) Positive_regulation (mediated) of Positive_regulation (increases) of tyrosine hydroxylase in thoracic
13) Confidence 0.38 Published 1983 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 6133231 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.34
Together, these findings support a scheme whereby chronic, systemic administration of morphine or cocaine leads to a sustained increase in ERK phosphorylation state and activity in the VTA, which, in turn, contributes to drug-induced increases in TH, and perhaps other drug-induced adaptations, elicited selectively in this brain region.
Positive_regulation (contributes) of Positive_regulation (increases) of TH in brain associated with ventral tegmentum, cocaine and morphine
14) Confidence 0.36 Published 1996 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8764658 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.92
However, this inhibitor neither modifies the morphine withdrawal induced Fos expression nor the increase of nonphosphorylated TH levels.
Neg (nor) Positive_regulation (induced) of Neg (nor) Positive_regulation (increase) of TH associated with withdrawal and morphine
15) Confidence 0.34 Published 2007 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17216288 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 1.49
Also the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine (100 microM), facilitated tyrosine hydroxylase activation by potassium.
Positive_regulation (facilitated) of Positive_regulation (activation) of tyrosine hydroxylase
16) Confidence 0.29 Published 1984 Journal Acta Physiol Pharmacol Latinoam Section Abstract Doc Link 6152372 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.29
The activation of tyrosine hydroxylase by veratridine may be mediated by the depolarization of, and the subsequent entry of Ca2+ into, ganglionic neurons.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (mediated) of Positive_regulation (activation) of tyrosine hydroxylase in neurons
17) Confidence 0.28 Published 1984 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 6141219 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.11
In contrast, ciliary neurotrophic factor infusions alone resulted in an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, with no additional increase induced by morphine or cocaine coadministration.
Positive_regulation (resulted) of Positive_regulation (increase) of tyrosine hydroxylase in ciliary associated with cocaine and morphine
18) Confidence 0.20 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8545003 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.42
Orphanin FQ/nociceptin blocks chronic morphine-induced tyrosine hydroxylase upregulation.
Positive_regulation (morphine-induced) of Positive_regulation (upregulation) of tyrosine hydroxylase associated with orphanin and morphine
19) Confidence 0.19 Published 2002 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 12399106 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 1.18
Pre-treatment with the MAPK specific inhibitor (U0126) or the adenylate cyclase inhibitor dideoxyadenosine (ddA) abolished the butyrate-induced: (i) accumulation of TH mRNA, (ii) the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 as well as (iii) CREB phosphorylation.
Positive_regulation (butyrate-induced) of Positive_regulation (accumulation) of TH mRNA
20) Confidence 0.19 Published 2006 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 16854387 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

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