INT31393

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Context Info
Confidence 0.66
First Reported 1987
Last Reported 2009
Negated 2
Speculated 5
Reported most in Body
Documents 10
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 7.32
Pain Relevance 21.23

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Oprd1) cytoplasm (Oprd1) signal transducer activity (Oprd1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neutrophils 7
monocytes 5
Ventral 4
joints 2
brain 2
Oprd1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Opioid 907 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 131 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 33 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 31 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Cannabinoid 4 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 114 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
chemokine 65 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
IPN 247 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 204 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Arthritis 39 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 3 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory Pain 247 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 494 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 13 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 377 96.04 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 26 94.24 High High
Nociception 312 83.76 Quite High
Hyperalgesia 78 83.56 Quite High
Post Operative Pain 26 83.40 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
However, recent studies suggest that short term morphine pretreatment can increase delta opioid receptor-mediated antinociception by promoting the translocation of delta opioid receptor to the cell surface.
Positive_regulation (promoting) of Localization (translocation) of delta opioid receptor associated with antinociception, opioid receptor and morphine
1) Confidence 0.66 Published 2006 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 16716526 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.40
Dopamine antagonists increased opioid action, an action that may depend more on the increased release of endogenous opioids than on supersensitivity of the opioid receptor.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of opioid receptor associated with dopamine, antagonist, endogenous opioid, opioid receptor and opioid
2) Confidence 0.47 Published 2003 Journal Auton Autacoid Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 14565539 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.83
Juvenile isolation increased general activity during the social interaction test, an effect which was accompanied by a reduction of opioid receptor occupancy in many brain areas, suggesting an increased opioid peptide release as a consequence of socially-induced general activity.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in brain associated with opioid receptor and opioid
3) Confidence 0.41 Published 1999 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10350555 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.10
Morphine treatment in isolated rats caused an increase in adult social activity and enhanced opioid peptide release in some cortical regions and the ventral tegmental area as compared to saline treated rats.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in ventral associated with ventral tegmentum, opioid and morphine
4) Confidence 0.41 Published 1999 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 10350555 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.25
Potassium ions also caused an increase, followed by a decrease, in opioid peptide release, and naloxone also prevented the latter from occurring.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide associated with narcan and opioid
5) Confidence 0.27 Published 1987 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 2891081 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.75
Potassium ions also caused an increase, followed by a decrease, in opioid peptide release, and naloxone also prevented the latter from occurring.
Positive_regulation (caused) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide associated with narcan and opioid
6) Confidence 0.27 Published 1987 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 2891081 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.75
Delta(2)-opioid receptor mediation of morphine-induced CCK release in the frontal cortex of the freely moving rat.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of opioid receptor in frontal cortex associated with urological neuroanatomy, opioid receptor and morphine
7) Confidence 0.27 Published 1999 Journal Synapse Section Title Doc Link 10459171 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.96
Ventral tegmental self-stimulation selectively induces opioid peptide release in rat CNS.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in Ventral associated with opioid
8) Confidence 0.08 Published 1993 Journal Synapse Section Title Doc Link 8427014 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Elevation of intracellular Ca2+ is required for opioid peptide release [17].
Positive_regulation (required) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide associated with opioid
9) Confidence 0.04 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.90
Opioid peptide release requires a stimulus such as cold water swim [43] or intraplantar injection of corticotrophin releasing hormone, cytokines (e.g. interleukin-1) [44] or chemokines (CXCL2/3) [17],[18].
Positive_regulation (requires) of Localization (release) of Opioid peptide associated with chemokine, opioid and cytokine
10) Confidence 0.04 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 1.11
Mycobacteria or bacterial products may trigger opioid peptide release in arthritic joints or at the site of surgery with accompanying infection.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (trigger) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in joints associated with opioid, infection and arthritis
11) Confidence 0.04 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 1.42
In line with the lack of opioid peptide release after TLR-2 or TLR-4 stimulation, the Mycobacterium butyricum-induced release of Met-enkephalin could not be blocked by single or combined TLR-2/4 blockade (Fig. 6A, 7B).
Positive_regulation (after) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide associated with enkephalin and opioid
12) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.60
In line with the lack of opioid peptide release after TLR-2 or TLR-4 stimulation, the Mycobacterium butyricum-induced release of Met-enkephalin could not be blocked by single or combined TLR-2/4 blockade (Fig. 6A, 7B).
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide associated with enkephalin and opioid
13) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.60
We further examined the role of TLR and FPR in mycobacterial stimulation of opioid peptide release.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (stimulation) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide associated with opioid
14) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.72
We found that Mycobacterium butyricum induced opioid peptide release from neutrophils through FPR but not TLR stimulation.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (induced) of Neg (not) Localization (release) of opioid peptide in neutrophils associated with opioid
15) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.95
In this study we examined whether heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum triggers opioid peptide release from rat and human neutrophils and monocytes and whether this requires FPR and/or TLR activation.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (requires) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in monocytes associated with opioid
16) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.72
We hypothesized that Mycobacterium butyricum might directly trigger opioid peptide release.
Spec (might) Positive_regulation (trigger) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide associated with opioid
17) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 1.19
Mycobacteria can trigger opioid peptide release from neutrophils but not from monocytes
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (trigger) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in monocytes associated with opioid
18) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 1.23
In vitro, heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum triggers opioid peptide release from neutrophils, but not from monocytes.
Positive_regulation (triggers) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in neutrophils associated with opioid
19) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 1.17
Alternatively, other releasing agents such as chemokines (CXCR1/2 ligands) can trigger opioid peptide release from rat and human neutrophils [17],[18] and these are produced in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation [14] as well as in surgical wounds [69].


Positive_regulation (trigger) of Localization (release) of opioid peptide in neutrophils associated with chemokine, inflammation, injury and opioid
20) Confidence 0.03 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2657213 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 1.39

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