INT31780

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Context Info
Confidence 0.36
First Reported 1981
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 17
Total Number 27
Disease Relevance 10.07
Pain Relevance 10.00

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

small molecule metabolic process (DIO2) plasma membrane (DIO2) cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process (DIO2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 2
pituitary 2
neurons 1
cerebral cortex 1
brain 1
DIO2 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 1413 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 537 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 232 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Duloxetine 66 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 169 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 32 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Potency 11 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 8 98.94 Very High Very High Very High
cerebral cortex 4 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cancer 86 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 155 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Psychosis 89 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Hypokinesia 132 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Movement Disorders 78 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 181 97.76 Very High Very High Very High
Muscle Hypotonia 22 96.84 Very High Very High Very High
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection 4 96.56 Very High Very High Very High
Pituitary Cancer 38 96.08 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Sulpiride, alizapride, SL 74205, TER 1546 and tiapride were specific for D-2 receptors, but these drugs were active only in the 10(-7)-10(-6) M range.
D-2 Binding (specific) of
1) Confidence 0.36 Published 1988 Journal J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2901473 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
From a sexual selection perspective, our finding that nonMHC-d2 was associated with health provides some of the first evidence that genetic diversity outside the MHC is beneficial for the individual.
d2 Binding (associated) of
2) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2712076 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The discrepancy in the associations between the H and the d2 measures and health may be a result of several factors.
d2 Binding (associations) of
3) Confidence 0.28 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2712076 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0
In order to obtain information on the possible functions of endogenous opiates in the primate cerebral cortex, we assessed the distribution of mu-like opiate receptors (which selectively bind 3H-labeled naloxone) and delta-like opiate receptors (which selectively bind 3H-labeled D-Ala2, D-Leu5-enkephalin) throughout the cerebral cortex of the rhesus monkey.
D-Ala2 Binding (bind) of in cerebral cortex associated with narcan, enkephalin, opiate and cerebral cortex
4) Confidence 0.26 Published 1981 Journal Science Section Abstract Doc Link 6258227 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.87
The further rising dopamine concentration reaches the level that interact with D2 receptors and accelerates contraction of an agonist muscle (up-regulation).
D2 Binding (interact) of in muscle associated with dopamine and agonist
5) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.66
Different drugs known to induce neuroleptic-associated parkinsonism share the properties of binding to both D1 and D2 receptors (Reimold et al. 2007).
D2 Binding (binding) of associated with parkinson's disease
6) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.30
D1 and D2 receptors express distinct patterns of affinity to dopamine and interact differently with one another depending on synaptic concentrations of neurotransmitter (Zheng et al. 1999; Gerlach et al. 2003).
D2 Binding (interact) of associated with neurotransmitter and dopamine
7) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.66
The voluntary agonist contraction is not affected and higher dosage of levodopa is not necessary for treatment, indicating that dopamine/D2 interaction is not disturbed; otherwise according to our model the disorders of voluntary contraction should be obtained.
D2 Binding (interaction) of associated with dopamine and agonist
8) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 1.14 Pain Relevance 0.30
According to the model proposed, failed dopamine/D1 interaction from receptor blockade leads to the disinhibition of muscular tone and the clinical appearance of rigidity, whereas interrupted dopamine/D2 interaction disables the acceleration of muscle contraction, causing slowness of movement or bradykinesia.


D2 Binding (interaction) of in muscle associated with dopamine and hypokinesia
9) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.38
According to our hypothesis rigidity appears due to diminished dopamine/D1 interaction whereas bradykinesia is a consequence of reduced dopamine/D2 interaction.
D2 Binding (interaction) of associated with dopamine and hypokinesia
10) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.16
Urinary concentrations of tumor necrosis factor, prostaglandins E2, D2 and F2 alpha, and thromboxane B2 were not different among either patient groups or controls.
D2 Binding (concentrations) of associated with necrosis and cancer
11) Confidence 0.20 Published 1994 Journal J. Urol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8015071 Disease Relevance 1.36 Pain Relevance 0.42
The interaction between dopamine and striatal D1- and D2-receptors occurs simultaneously with tone and contraction modulation during movement leading one to consider that D1 and D2 may be distinguished in tone and contraction regulation on the follow manner:

Dopamine-dependent tone and contraction regulation

D2 Binding (occurs) of associated with dopamine
12) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.62
Thus the single nigral axon may influence both D1 and D2 receptors in the pool of striatal neurons responsible for movement activity of agonist–antagonist muscle pair.
D2 Binding (receptors) of in neurons associated with antagonist and agonist
13) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
According to our hypothesis, the increased density of postsynaptic striatal D2 receptors may suggest the overactive dopamine/D2 interaction leading to involuntary acceleration of contraction and involuntary movement release.
D2 Binding (interaction) of associated with dopamine and dyskinesias
14) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.33
D1 receptors interact with lower and D2 receptors with higher dopamine concentrations.
D2 Binding (interact) of associated with dopamine
15) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Abstract Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.46
At the molecular biology and neuropharmacological levels, the hypothesis suggests that putative treatments need to consider both D1 and D2 activity for maximal therapeutic efficacy in most movement disorders.



D2 Binding (activity) of associated with movement disorders
16) Confidence 0.17 Published 2010 Journal J Neural Transm Section Body Doc Link PMC3000910 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.24
The dopamine-mediated inhibition of prolactin secretion occurs through the binding of D2 receptors on the membrane of lactotroph cells and involves several signal transduction systems, resulting in inhibition of prolactin gene transcription, reduction of prolactin synthesis and release.
D2 Binding (binding) of in lactotroph associated with dopamine
17) Confidence 0.13 Published 2007 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2376090 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.29
Duloxetine is an inhibitor of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake, with more than 100-fold greater potency compared with venlafaxine.146 Duloxetine has low affinity for D2, serotonin, ?
D2 Binding (affinity) of associated with noradrenaline, serotonin, duloxetine and potency
18) Confidence 0.11 Published 2010 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2938284 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.55
There are several hypotheses to explain the “atypical” behavior on prolactin levels: regional limbic selectivity (Goldstein 1999), preferential binding to D3 and D4 (Kuhn 2000), peculiar binding dynamics at the D2 receptors or differences in affinity to D2 (Seeman 2002), combined antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors (Kuhn 2000).
D2 Binding (binding) of associated with dopamine and serotonin
19) Confidence 0.10 Published 2007 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2376090 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.53
Venlafaxine probably inhibits serotonin uptake only in low doses, whereas both serotonin and noradrenaline uptake are inhibited following high doses.115 The drug does not possess significant affinity for 5HT1A, 5HT2A, D2, muscarinic, or ?
D2 Neg (not) Binding (affinity) of associated with noradrenaline and serotonin
20) Confidence 0.09 Published 2010 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2938284 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.42

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