INT32007

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Context Info
Confidence 0.62
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 6
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 56
Total Number 57
Disease Relevance 18.94
Pain Relevance 11.13

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 4
neck 1
blood 1
spinal cord 1
tail 1
ECT (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
imagery 427 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 354 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
magnetoencephalography 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 354 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 257 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
depression 629 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Lasting pain 3 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
intrathecal 280 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 234 98.08 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 44 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Amnesia 23 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Schizophrenia 23 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Catatonia 42 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure And Volume Under Development 79 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 132 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 908 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 275 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Depressive Disorder 58 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Delirium 74 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 59 98.40 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Notwithstanding the efficacy of ECT, its use is declining in some countries [3], while in a few others, including Italy – where ECT was first introduced in 1938 by Cerletti and Bini – it is prohibited.
Gene_expression (introduced) of ECT
1) Confidence 0.62 Published 2004 Journal Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC514898 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.25
Squire (1977) investigated the effects of ECT on cognitive functioning and found that bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT on both recall and recognition memory tests.
Gene_expression (produced) of ECT associated with cognitive disorder and amnesia
2) Confidence 0.61 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2526376 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0
There is substantial scientific literature on the efficacy and indication of ECT, and many patients in western countries have expressed their satisfaction [8-12], but there are few accounts of how it is viewed by patients, especially in a developing country like Pakistan.
Gene_expression (expressed) of ECT
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 2007 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC1929082 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.11
Those who responded that they had never heard about ECT were not questioned any further.
Neg (never) Gene_expression (heard) of ECT
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 2007 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC1929082 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Item 1 (Pregnant women can also receive ECT): Only a few of the patients (16.8%) and relatives (15.7%) agreed to it implying that majority of the people did not consider ECT to be safe in pregnancy.
Gene_expression (receive) of ECT
5) Confidence 0.58 Published 2006 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2913640 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0
Item 4 (ECT is given to only those patients who have little chance of improvement anyway): This important misconception was shared by about 70% of the sample implying that prescription of ECT is perceived as communication of non-treatability of the condition by any other means.
Gene_expression (prescription) of ECT
6) Confidence 0.58 Published 2006 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2913640 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0
The dosage of antidepressants and mood stabilizers was reduced during M-ECT treatment, especially in patients with schizoaffective disorder, probably in relation with the effectiveness of ECT on mood symptoms.
Gene_expression (effectiveness) of ECT
7) Confidence 0.58 Published 2008 Journal Encephale Section Body Doc Link 19068343 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This suggestion merits wide attention because of its public health importance in countries with poor medical infrastructure, where unmodified ECT is still widely practiced.


Gene_expression (practiced) of ECT
8) Confidence 0.58 Published 2010 Journal J ECT Section Body Doc Link 20190597 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
After the initial treatment, 12 of 14 patients wanted to use the machine after all their subsequent ECT sessions.
Gene_expression (sessions) of ECT
9) Confidence 0.58 Published 2008 Journal J ECT Section Body Doc Link 18580561 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
CONCLUSIONS: The practice of ECT in Asia may seem suboptimal: schizophrenia, not depression, is the most common indication; most institutions offer sine-wave ECT; unmodified ECT is commonly administered; bilateral electrode placement is invariable in most institutions; electroencephalographic monitoring is uncommon; continuation ECT is infrequent; and no formal training in ECT is available.
Gene_expression (unmodified) of ECT
10) Confidence 0.58 Published 2010 Journal J ECT Section Body Doc Link 19444137 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
LIMITATIONS: It should be noted that empirical evidence for the effectiveness of each of the above strategies in producing better outcomes with ECT is not definitive, pointing to the need for further research in these areas.
Gene_expression (producing) of ECT
11) Confidence 0.58 Published 2010 Journal J Affect Disord Section Body Doc Link 19647325 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Students with minimal knowledge of ECT showed more negative attitudes toward the myth that ECT is misused and should be a treatment of last resort.
Gene_expression (misused) of ECT
12) Confidence 0.58 Published 2009 Journal J ECT Section Body Doc Link 19057398 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
CONCLUSIONS: The practice of ECT in Asia may seem suboptimal: schizophrenia, not depression, is the most common indication; most institutions offer sine-wave ECT; unmodified ECT is commonly administered; bilateral electrode placement is invariable in most institutions; electroencephalographic monitoring is uncommon; continuation ECT is infrequent; and no formal training in ECT is available.
Gene_expression (practice) of ECT
13) Confidence 0.58 Published 2010 Journal J ECT Section Body Doc Link 19444137 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Four patients (two each from UL and BLECT groups) at the second ECT and none at the fifth ECT had prolonged seizures (EEG ?
Gene_expression (had) of ECT associated with convulsion
14) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2902093 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.14
Diffusion-weighted scan, a more sensitive MRI method for recognition of abnormal proton changes, may permit detection of ECT-induced brain edema.
Gene_expression (detection) of ECT in brain associated with pressure and volume under development and imagery
15) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2902093 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.25
When unilateral ECT patients alone were analyzed, there was no significant difference in T2 relaxation time following second ECT.[24] Even the most sensitive techniques (3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging) failed to detect changes in the cerebral structure immediately after ECT.[5] It is possible that ECT did not produce any structural change in brain detectable on routine MRI examination, or increase in brain water content (edema) may not be of sufficient magnitude to be detected in MRI T2 relaxation time after the second ECT.
Gene_expression (detected) of ECT in brain associated with pressure and volume under development and imagery
16) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2902093 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.28
Patients were scanned immediately after ECT (within 15 minutes), and T2 relaxation time changes are not expected to occur by then.
Gene_expression (scanned) of ECT
17) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2902093 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.26
When unilateral ECT patients alone were analyzed, there was no significant difference in T2 relaxation time following second ECT.[24] Even the most sensitive techniques (3D high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging) failed to detect changes in the cerebral structure immediately after ECT.[5] It is possible that ECT did not produce any structural change in brain detectable on routine MRI examination, or increase in brain water content (edema) may not be of sufficient magnitude to be detected in MRI T2 relaxation time after the second ECT.
Neg (not) Gene_expression (produce) of ECT in brain associated with pressure and volume under development and imagery
18) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2902093 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.33
Four patients (two each from UL and BLECT groups) at the second ECT and none at the fifth ECT had prolonged seizures (EEG ?
Gene_expression (second) of ECT associated with convulsion
19) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2902093 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.14
ECT procedure
Gene_expression (procedure) of ECT
20) Confidence 0.57 Published 2007 Journal Indian Journal of Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2902093 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.18

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