| Therefore, the measurement of TEWL in the skin is useful for early diagnosis of infantile AD and the early care on the skin of these infants might be expected to effect protectively on development and aggravation of AD.1 We have already reported that Staphylococcus aureus (SA) usually existed not only on the skin regions affected by AD but also on the atopic dry skin regions.2 The number of SA detected on the skin surface of forearm and forehead in AD patients was remarkably more than that in healthy controls, as shown Fig. 1.2 There was a significant correlation between eruption score and the number of SA detected on the same area of patients with AD (relationship coefficiency= 0.54, P<0.01),1 as shown in Fig. 2.3 We have also reported that farnesol (F) of a perfume and xylitol (X) of sugar alcohol synergistically can inhibit the biofilm formation of SA and moreover can dissolve the formed biofilm of SA, as shown in Fig. 3-1 and Fig. 3-2.3,4 Indeed, the treatment with FX cream improved significantly 4 out of 5 items in AD lesions at 2 weeks later, while the treatment with control cream improved only 1 item of dryness/desquamation as shown in Fig. 4.3,4 Both of the number of SA and the ratio of SA to total bacteria at the sites, to which the FX cream containing F and X had been applied, significantly decreased in 2 weeks later, accompanied with clinical improvement of AD, as shown in Fig. 5.3,4 The therapeutic effect of this FX cream is conceivable to be based on two functions of it, namely the prevention of adhesion of SA to the skin and the removal of SA from the skin.