INT336

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Context Info
Confidence 0.58
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 19
Total Number 24
Disease Relevance 7.71
Pain Relevance 9.51

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

mitochondrion (Gad1) lyase activity (Gad1) intracellular (Gad1)
cytoplasm (Gad1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 4
substantia nigra 3
neurons 3
GABAergic neurons 2
AcS 1
Gad1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Substantia nigra 448 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 259 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 56 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 468 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 67 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 5 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 14 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 14 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 135 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Deafferentation 2 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 134 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 432 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction 18 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Death 11 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 18 98.98 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 108 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
Ataxia 1 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 5 92.08 High High
Apoptosis 80 91.92 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
GAD67 mRNA was strongly reduced in the lesioned substantia nigra after long-term L-dopa treatment, whereas the reduction of GAD67 mRNA was less marked after SCH 58261 + L-dopa treatment.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of GAD67 mRNA in substantia nigra associated with substantia nigra
1) Confidence 0.58 Published 2003 Journal Neurology Section Abstract Doc Link 14663008 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.61
GAD67 mRNA was strongly reduced in the lesioned substantia nigra after long-term L-dopa treatment, whereas the reduction of GAD67 mRNA was less marked after SCH 58261 + L-dopa treatment.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of GAD67 mRNA in substantia nigra associated with substantia nigra
2) Confidence 0.58 Published 2003 Journal Neurology Section Abstract Doc Link 14663008 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.61
Amphetamine pre-exposure decreased GAD67 mRNA levels in the dLStr and the AcC and AcS, and this effect was reversed by amphetamine challenge.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of GAD67 in AcS
3) Confidence 0.58 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 18312583 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.64
On the other hand, chronic administration of the D2 dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole significantly decreased GAD67 in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral and preproenkephalin in the ventrolateral sectors of the striatum.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of GAD67 in striatum associated with dopamine receptor and agonist
4) Confidence 0.56 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750862 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.63
The effects of neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine injections on the levels and cellular distribution of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), preproenkephalin and dopamine D2 receptor messenger RNAs were studied in the striatum of adult rats.
Negative_regulation (distribution) of GAD67 in striatum associated with dopamine and glutamate
5) Confidence 0.43 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7902185 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Partial deafferentation of the developing rat spinal cord delays the spontaneous repression of GAD67 mRNAs in spinal cells.
Negative_regulation (repression) of GAD67 in spinal associated with qutenza, repression, spinal cord and deafferentation
6) Confidence 0.42 Published 1998 Journal Perspect Dev Neurobiol Section Title Doc Link 9777631 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.72
Furthermore, muscimol caused an irreversible reduction of glutamic acid decarboxylase activity, indicating a loss of GABAergic neurons.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in GABAergic neurons associated with gabaergic
7) Confidence 0.42 Published 1998 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9541740 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.32
However, D2R mRNA expression was down-regulated in the striatum, GAD67 mRNA was down-regulated in the prefrontal cortex and prodynorphin mRNA was up-regulated in the striatum of the VH-lesioned rats as compared with sham controls.
Negative_regulation (down-regulated) of GAD67 mRNA in prefrontal
8) Confidence 0.42 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12887421 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.22
A localization in intrinsic neurons is confirmed by a selective loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase after local injections of kainic acid.
Negative_regulation (loss) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in intrinsic neurons
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 1977 Journal Ciba Found. Symp. Section Abstract Doc Link 32019 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.24
The drug also significantly restored decreases in cortical choline acetyltransferase (p < 0.05) and hippocampal glutamic acid decarboxylase activities (p < 0.01) in the embolized cerebral hemisphere and significantly increased cortical choline acetyltransferase (p < 0.05) and acetylcholinesterase activities (p < 0.05) in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere 21 days after embolization.
Negative_regulation (decreases) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in cerebral hemisphere
10) Confidence 0.41 Published 1992 Journal Arzneimittelforschung Section Abstract Doc Link 1492838 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.29
GABAergic efferent neurons in striatum are highly vulnerable to ischemia; GAD67-immunoreactivity markedly decreases associated with the death of striatal efferent neurons in the lesioned dorsal striatum and markedly decreases the GABA synthesis in SRN induced by global ischemia [17].
Negative_regulation (decreases) of GAD67-immunoreactivity in striatum associated with gaba, ischemia, gabaergic and death
11) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Section Body Doc Link PMC2957857 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.51
This study offers evidence that the GABAergic system in substantia nigra (SN) underwent delayed degeneration at 4–8 weeks following a single episode of 12.5-min forebrain ischemia, including a decrease of GAD67-, VGAT- and CR- immunoreactivity; no direct ischemic injury was detected in the SN during the acute postischemic stage (postinjury days 3 and 7).
Negative_regulation (decrease) of GAD67 in substantia nigra associated with ischemia, substantia nigra, gabaergic and injury
12) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Section Body Doc Link PMC2957857 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.50
While sham (positive-control) slide exhibited positive staining, the decreased GAD67 or VGAT immunoreaction implies decreased GABAergic markers in brains from postischemic rats.

2.4.

Negative_regulation (decreased) of GAD67 in brains associated with gabaergic
13) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Section Body Doc Link PMC2957857 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.09
Ischemic rats at day 56 displayed decreased GAD67-ir including lesser number of puncta and lower density (Figures 4(c)–4(h)).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of GAD67
14) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Section Body Doc Link PMC2957857 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
In addition, striatal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) leads to a robust decrease of GAD67 immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral SNR for at least 94 days [26].
Negative_regulation (decrease) of GAD67 in middle cerebral artery associated with middle cerebral artery infarction and ischemia
15) Confidence 0.39 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Section Body Doc Link PMC2957857 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.44
Based on GAD67 immunoreactivity, GAD expression in SN was decreased at the 8th week after 12.5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia.

6.2.

Negative_regulation (decreased) of GAD67 in forebrain associated with generalized anxiety disorder, ischemia and substantia nigra
16) Confidence 0.39 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology Section Body Doc Link PMC2957857 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0.58
Partial lesions of striato- and pallido-nigral GABA neurons with kainic acid (1.2 micrograms) decrease by 40% the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the ipsilateral SN without decreasing the spontaneous release of [3H]GABA; even following extensive lesions with kainic acid (2.5 micrograms), GAD activity (-72%) and spontaneous [3H]GABA release (-83%) were not completely abolished.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in neurons associated with gaba and generalized anxiety disorder
17) Confidence 0.37 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1794098 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.83
Convulsions induced by methylmalonic acid are associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition in rats: a role for GABA in the seizures presented by methylmalonic acidemic patients?
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of glutamic acid decarboxylase associated with gaba and convulsion
18) Confidence 0.36 Published 2007 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 17467181 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.25
Parallel decrease of glutamic acid decarboxylase and preproenkephalin mRNA in the rat striatum following chronic treatment with a dopaminergic D1 antagonist and D2 agonist.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in striatum associated with antagonist, agonist and enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.34 Published 1991 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Title Doc Link 1824860 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.30
The synthesis (by glutamic acid decarboxylase), content and high affinity uptake of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) are not reduced after lesions of these or other projection fibre systems.
Neg (not) Negative_regulation (reduced) of glutamic acid decarboxylase associated with gaba
20) Confidence 0.30 Published 1977 Journal Ciba Found. Symp. Section Abstract Doc Link 32019 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.26

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