INT34977

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Context Info
Confidence 0.76
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2006
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 11
Total Number 26
Disease Relevance 12.39
Pain Relevance 3.07

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

nuclear chromosome (Hmga2) enzyme binding (Hmga2) DNA binding (Hmga2)
mitosis (Hmga2) signal transduction (Hmga2) nucleus (Hmga2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pituitary 11
thyroid 1
Hmga2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain threshold 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
metalloproteinase 66 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
cINOD 21 89.68 High High
Analgesic 15 88.44 High High
Hyperalgesia 9 75.00 Quite High
Morphine 3 73.04 Quite High
Inflammation 25 63.20 Quite High
headache 16 58.40 Quite High
central pain 3 42.56 Quite Low
Central nervous system 3 39.76 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 176 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pituitary Cancer 432 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Prolactinoma 48 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Retinoblastoma 32 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Malignant Neoplastic Disease 16 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Adhesions 168 98.18 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 84 94.80 High High
Benign Tumor 16 94.64 High High
INFLAMMATION 46 91.60 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
By transfection, luciferase and colony assays, we could establish that the overexpression of HMGA2 antagonizes the activity of pRB.
Gene_expression (overexpression) of HMGA2
1) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0
Induction of HMGA2 gene expression occurs in several human malignant neoplasias, including thyroid [11,12], pancreas [13], breast [14], and colorectum [15-17], and seems to play a critical role in cell transformation, since the block of its synthesis prevents rat thyroid transformation by murine transforming retroviruses [18].
Gene_expression (expression) of HMGA2 in thyroid associated with malignant neoplastic disease
2) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0
In fact, transgenic mice expressing high levels of the HMGA2 gene develop pituitary adenomas secreting prolactin and growth hormone [6], (Figure 1).
Gene_expression (expressing) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with targeted disruption and pituitary cancer
3) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.06
To answer to this question, it would be interesting to evaluate the acetylation status of the E2F1 protein in pituitary adenomas when the HMGA2 is overexpressed or not.
Neg (not) Gene_expression (overexpressed) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with pituitary cancer
4) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0
Consistently, HDAC1 activity associated to pRB is lower in cells and pituitary adenomas overexpressing HMGA2 than in mock-transfected cells and normal pituitary, respectively [38].
Gene_expression (overexpressing) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with pituitary cancer
5) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0
Consistent with the onset of pituitary adenomas in HMGA2-transgenic mice, we have found the induction of HMGA2 expression in human prolactinomas in association with amplification and/or rearrangement of the gene [20], and, recently, we have shown that also the majority of NFPAs express HMGA2, but, in these cases, it is not associated to over-representation of the HMGA2 region [21].


Gene_expression (expression) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with targeted disruption, prolactinoma and pituitary cancer
6) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0
The presence of E2F1 hyperacetylation in the absence of HMGA2 overexpression would suggest the involvement of other proteins acting with the same or similar mechanism of HMGA2 protein, or alternatively other mechanisms that eventually lead to an increase in E2F1 acetylation and subsequent activation.



Gene_expression (overexpression) of HMGA2
7) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
HMGA2 expression is restricted during embryogenesis, whereas it is absent or very low in normal adult tissues [9,10].
Gene_expression (expression) of HMGA2
8) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0
Consistent with the onset of pituitary adenomas in HMGA2-transgenic mice, we have found the induction of HMGA2 expression in human prolactinomas in association with amplification and/or rearrangement of the gene [20], and, recently, we have shown that also the majority of NFPAs express HMGA2, but, in these cases, it is not associated to over-representation of the HMGA2 region [21].


Gene_expression (express) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with targeted disruption, prolactinoma and pituitary cancer
9) Confidence 0.76 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0
Suppression of pituitary tumorigenesis in HMGA2 transgenic mice lacking E2F1
Gene_expression (transgenic mice) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with targeted disruption
10) Confidence 0.66 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0
By co-immunoprecipitating HMGA2 and pRB in pituitary adenomas developed by HMGA2 mice, we demonstrated the interaction between the two proteins occurring in the tumor.
Gene_expression (immunoprecipitating) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with cancer and pituitary cancer
11) Confidence 0.66 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0
E2F1 activation is responsible for pituitary adenomas induced by HMGA2 gene overexpression

The High Mobility Group protein HMGA2 is a nuclear architectural factor that plays a critical role in a wide range of biological processes including regulation of gene expression, embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation.

Gene_expression (overexpression) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with pituitary cancer
12) Confidence 0.59 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Title Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0
Since HMGA2 amplification and overexpression has been detected also in human pituitary adenomas, we retain that E2F1 activation plays a critical role also in the human pituitary pathology.
Gene_expression (overexpression) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with pituitary cancer
13) Confidence 0.59 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Body Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0
Overexpression of HMGA2 gene leads to the onset of prolactin and GH-hormone induced pituitary adenomas in mice, suggesting a critical role of this protein in pituitary tumorigenesis.
Gene_expression (Overexpression) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with pituitary cancer
14) Confidence 0.59 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0
E2F1 activation is responsible for pituitary adenomas induced by HMGA2 gene overexpression

The High Mobility Group protein HMGA2 is a nuclear architectural factor that plays a critical role in a wide range of biological processes including regulation of gene expression, embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation.

Gene_expression (overexpression) of HMGA2 in pituitary associated with pituitary cancer
15) Confidence 0.59 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Title Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0
This was also confirmed in the human pathology by the finding that HMGA2 amplification and/or overexpression is present in human prolactinomas.
Gene_expression (overexpression) of HMGA2 associated with prolactinoma
16) Confidence 0.59 Published 2006 Journal Cell Div Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1563461 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0
The doses that produced the maximal decrease in pain threshold for arachidonic acid, PG E2, PG F2 alpha and PG D2 were 10 micrograms/mouse, 10 ng/mouse, 100 ng/mouse and 100 ng/mouse, respectively.
Gene_expression (produced) of PG F2 alpha associated with pain threshold
17) Confidence 0.59 Published 1986 Journal J. Pharmacobio-dyn. Section Abstract Doc Link 3104573 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.94
The doses that produced the maximal decrease in pain threshold for arachidonic acid, PG E2, PG F2 alpha and PG D2 were 10 micrograms/mouse, 10 ng/mouse, 100 ng/mouse and 100 ng/mouse, respectively.
Gene_expression (produced) of PG D2 associated with pain threshold
18) Confidence 0.59 Published 1986 Journal J. Pharmacobio-dyn. Section Abstract Doc Link 3104573 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.95
The doses that produced the maximal decrease in pain threshold for arachidonic acid, PG E2, PG F2 alpha and PG D2 were 10 micrograms/mouse, 10 ng/mouse, 100 ng/mouse and 100 ng/mouse, respectively.
Gene_expression (produced) of PG E2 associated with pain threshold
19) Confidence 0.59 Published 1986 Journal J. Pharmacobio-dyn. Section Abstract Doc Link 3104573 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.94
MC57 cells, which demonstrated similar changes in cell adhesion to RAW cells following IDO expression, exhibited lower levels of COX-2 synthesis upon IDO expression and lower levels of PG E2 relative to other PGs such as D2.
Gene_expression (expression) of PG E2 associated with adhesions
20) Confidence 0.02 Published 2001 Journal BMC Biochem Section Body Doc Link PMC31925 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.03

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