INT35251

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Context Info
Confidence 0.60
First Reported 1987
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 21
Total Number 23
Disease Relevance 8.26
Pain Relevance 2.60

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 2
testis 2
arcuate nucleus 1
neurons 1
reproductive organs 1
Ghrl (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 89 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 15 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 3 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
spastic colon 8 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
anesthesia 2 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
sodium channel 2 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
tetrodotoxin 2 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Action potential 4 96.48 Very High Very High Very High
Intracerebroventricular 2 93.16 High High
agonist 107 93.00 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Anxiety Disorder 23 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 41 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 116 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Functional Bowel Disorder 2 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Weight Loss 2 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 12 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Irritable Bowel Syndrome /

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Super

6 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 41 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 56 97.64 Very High Very High Very High
Death 2 96.32 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Basically, cachexia is dependent from cytokine-driven dysregulation of the peripheral signals (mainly leptin, ghrelin, and serotonin), reaching the brain hypothalamic region, which plays a central role in balancing the orexigenic and anorexigenic signals, leading to decreased food intake and increased resting energy expenditure (REE).
Regulation (dysregulation) of ghrelin in brain associated with appetite loss, serotonin and cytokine
1) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Indian Journal of Palliative Care Section Body Doc Link PMC3012235 Disease Relevance 2.32 Pain Relevance 0.25
Role of ghrelin and leptin in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis.
Regulation (Role) of ghrelin associated with pancreatitis
2) Confidence 0.44 Published 2007 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Title Doc Link 17333355 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.14
These findings of anxiolytic-like effects of raised ghrelin levels differ from the results of several other studies.
Regulation (effects) of ghrelin associated with anxiety disorder
3) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 1.05 Pain Relevance 0.09
The stimulatory effects of ghrelin on gene expression were not blocked by a sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin in the organotypic cultures.
Regulation (effects) of ghrelin associated with tetrodotoxin and sodium channel
4) Confidence 0.33 Published 2006 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 16887908 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.34
Effect of photoperiod on Ghrelin and GHSR-1a in the adult Soay testis
Regulation (Effect) of Ghrelin in testis
5) Confidence 0.27 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Ghrelin is an important factor of energy balance, weight regulation and the control of appetite and feeding, and its dysregulation is assumed to play an important role regarding obesity [14, 47, 60, 98, 108, 109].
Regulation (regulation) of Ghrelin associated with obesity
6) Confidence 0.26 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.28
It remains equivocal whether the ghrelin system is developmentally regulated in fetal reproductive organs, and whether there are interactions with other paracrine regulators of gonadal development such as SCF.
Spec (whether) Regulation (regulated) of ghrelin in reproductive organs
7) Confidence 0.23 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
Intravenous glucose administration in fasting rats has differential effects on acylated and unacylated ghrelin in the portal and systemic circulation: a comparison between portal and peripheral concentrations in anesthetized rats.
Regulation (effects) of ghrelin associated with anesthesia
8) Confidence 0.23 Published 2007 Journal Endocrinology Section Title Doc Link 17673520 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.14
Furthermore, our data demonstrate stimulatory action of ghrelin on NPY gene transcription, which requires de novo protein synthesis.
Regulation (action) of ghrelin
9) Confidence 0.20 Published 2006 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 16887908 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.27
The array of known and proposed interactions of ghrelin with key metabolic signals makes ghrelin and its receptor prime targets for drug development.


1.

Regulation (targets) of ghrelin
10) Confidence 0.15 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
These results suggested the presence of GHS-R in the DVC, as well as the involvement of vagal preganglionic neurons in the action of ghrelin on gastric tone.
Regulation (involvement) of ghrelin in neurons
11) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
EX-1314 did not accelerate the intestinal transit in ghrelin receptor knockout mice, confirming the necessity of GHS-R activation for the prokinetic action of ghrelin, in accordance to what has been shown in the in vitro studies [15, 32, 36].
Regulation (necessity) of ghrelin associated with targeted disruption
12) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.09
This result is similar to that of a Japanese study in which Isomoto et al. (11) showed that the plasma ghrelin level did not change after treating H. pyloriinfections (18, 23).
Neg (not) Regulation (change) of ghrelin in plasma
13) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.10
However, in some studies prolonged weight loss after gastric bypass had no effect on fasting ghrelin levels [250, 428, 429] or reduced only acylated ghrelin [430].
Neg (no) Regulation (effect) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss
14) Confidence 0.13 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.09
In the anterior pituitary gland, ghrelin and GHSR-1a immunoreactivity was also present, with GHSR-1a showing cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining in some cells (Fig. 1) In the adult ovary, ghrelin and GHSR-1a were immuno-localised to ovarian follicles at all developmental stages (primordial, primary, secondary, pre-antral and antral).
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of ghrelin in adult ovary
15) Confidence 0.12 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Novel data are presented that indicate that ghrelin and its functional receptor, GHSR-1a, are regulated during development of the ovine fetal testis and by seasonal developmental changes in the adult testis.
Regulation (regulated) of ghrelin in adult testis
16) Confidence 0.12 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
In the sheep brain, ghrelin and GHSR-1a immunoreactivity were demonstrated in the hypothalamic region, including the median eminence (ME), arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and ependymal lining (EL) of the third cerebral ventricle.
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of ghrelin in arcuate nucleus associated with aids-related complex
17) Confidence 0.12 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
Ghrelin and SCF immunoreactivity required antigen retrieval and used the DAKO ChemMate peroxidase/DAB detection system (DakoCytomation Ltd, Ely, UK).
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of Ghrelin
18) Confidence 0.12 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In the fetal sheep testis, there was a significant effect of gestational age on the level of immunostaining for ghrelin (p < 0.001), GHSR-1a (p < 0.05), SCF (p < 0.05) and PCNA (p < 0.01).


Regulation (effect) of ghrelin in testis
19) Confidence 0.10 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1291400 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
The discovery of ghrelin bore great importance in the scientific media for the following reasons: (1) ghrelin is the only endogenous (natural) ligand for the GHS-R, ever discovered; (2) ghrelin shares similar structure with motilin, the so-long called “orphan peptide,” based on its unique structure; (3) ghrelin is the first known case of a peptide hormone modified by a fatty acid, the n-octanoic acid; a step necessary for ghrelin to exert its effects [1]; (4) ghrelin is a hunger hormone that stimulates appetite, food intake and promotes weight gain, that is, ghrelin antagonist would serve as a potential treatment for obesity.
Regulation (modified) of ghrelin associated with antagonist, obesity and weight gain
20) Confidence 0.09 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915793 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.08

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