INT3846

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Context Info
Confidence 0.50
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 60
Total Number 62
Disease Relevance 35.16
Pain Relevance 9.37

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (GSR) mitochondrion (GSR) small molecule metabolic process (GSR)
oxidoreductase activity (GSR) cytoplasm (GSR)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neuronal 1
blood 1
liver 1
finger 1
nucleus 1
GSR (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
addiction 12 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
aspirin 96 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 425 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 204 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Paracetamol 49 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
diclofenac 18 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 198 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 3 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory mediators 27 96.28 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 35 94.72 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 1115 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cataract 159 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 191 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Frailty 45 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 104 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Stroke 409 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia 3 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 495 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 204 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 14 99.28 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
CONCLUSION: This study is the first to report that the antiinflammatory effects of NIM, an NSAID, may be partly related to its activation of the GR system.


Positive_regulation (activation) of GR
1) Confidence 0.50 Published 1999 Journal Arthritis Rheum. Section Body Doc Link 9920026 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
As a third regulatory system, the activity of glutathione reductase is also increased in patients with RA [76].
Positive_regulation (increased) of glutathione reductase associated with rheumatoid arthritis
2) Confidence 0.49 Published 2001 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC128883 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.38
The normal dex/CRH response in patients with high levels of emotional neglect suggests that emotional neglect in childhood either does not influence GR function or up-regulates GR function (most probably via persistent hypo-thalamic drive), offsetting the genetically induced GR down regulation seen in many bipolar patients and producing a null effect.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GR
3) Confidence 0.48 Published 2007 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2656301 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0
This latter postulate is supported by studies using other indices of childhood trauma that show enhanced GR receptor function in survivors of sexual abuse, domestic violence and patients with post-traumatic-stress-disorder (Yehuda et al 1991; Heim and Nemeroff 2001; Griffin et al 2005).
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of GR associated with stress, aggression and injury
4) Confidence 0.48 Published 2007 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2656301 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
The exaggerated cortisol response to the dex/CRH test in mood disorder patients who do not report high levels of childhood emotional neglect suggests reduced GR mediated negative feedback in these patients.
Positive_regulation (mediated) of GR associated with affective disorder
5) Confidence 0.48 Published 2007 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2656301 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
This elevation was followed by the increase in the GR activity.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GR
6) Confidence 0.41 Published 2009 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC2805669 Disease Relevance 1.21 Pain Relevance 0.14
Since the reported enjoyment was not dependent on the baseline period, the dependence of GSR on enjoyment in our experiment must have been due entirely to the differentiated response to the aversive stimulus caused by the two different tasks.
Positive_regulation (dependence) of GSR associated with addiction
7) Confidence 0.40 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2517650 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.15
induced GR upregulation without increasing GR mRNA [69].
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of GR
8) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC522845 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.19
induced GR upregulation without increasing GR mRNA [69].
Neg (without) Positive_regulation (increasing) of GR
9) Confidence 0.39 Published 2004 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC522845 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.19
Levels of activated nuclear GR capable of binding specifically to a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide harboring the glucocorticoid/hormone response element (GRE) were evaluated by gel electrophoretic mobility shift analysis.
Positive_regulation (activated) of GR
10) Confidence 0.33 Published 1999 Journal Arthritis Rheum. Section Body Doc Link 9920026 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
A previous study found a significant within-subject correlation between subjectively reported increases in “fun” (i.e. enjoyment) and mean (baseline) GSR when switching from a less enjoyable to a more enjoyable task [22].
Positive_regulation (increases) of GSR
11) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2517650 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.17
However, no change was observed in the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) after acetaminophen treatment, while acetaminophen plus vitamin E treated rats showed significant increase in GR activity.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GR associated with paracetamol
12) Confidence 0.29 Published 1995 Journal Indian J. Exp. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7558183 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.53
Most of the studies showing GR downregulation also found decreased cytosolic GR binding, which may result from compartmentalization of the GR during the acute response to cytokines.
Positive_regulation (compartmentalization) of GR associated with cytokine
13) Confidence 0.28 Published 2004 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC522845 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.23
In addition, studies conducted in cells treated with IL-1 for 24–48 hours or in tissues from animals with chronic sepsis or patients with chronic inflammation consistently showed GR upregulation [61,70,71], whereas experiments with shorter treatments with IL-1 inducers or conducted in the early phase of human sepsis showed GR downregulation [53,66,67].
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of GR associated with inflammation and sepsis
14) Confidence 0.28 Published 2004 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC522845 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0.25
Similarly, binding of glucocorticoids to the GR-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase Akt, leading to endothelial NOS activation and nitric oxide dependent vasorelaxation, is the mechanism by which glucocorticoids decreased vascular inflammation and reduced myocardial infarct size following ischaemia/reperfusion injury in mice [103].



Positive_regulation (stimulated) of GR associated with reperfusion injury, inflammation, cv unclassified under development, vasculitis and myocardial infarction
15) Confidence 0.28 Published 2004 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC522845 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.15
-reductase) inactivate cortisol, decreasing local glucocorticoid availability to bind and activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). 5?
Positive_regulation (activate) of GR
16) Confidence 0.23 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2551674 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.04
in cells from asthmatic patients, the establishment of cell lines containing an inducible GR?
Positive_regulation (inducible) of GR associated with asthma
17) Confidence 0.23 Published 2001 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC59562 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.13
to prevent hormone-activated GR?
Positive_regulation (activated) of GR
18) Confidence 0.19 Published 2001 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC59562 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.07
In these latter studies, the investigators used two different antisera, one directed against GR?
Positive_regulation (directed) of GR
19) Confidence 0.19 Published 2001 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC59562 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
Stimulation of gene transcription, or transactivation, occurs after binding of the hormone-activated GR?
Positive_regulation (activated) of GR
20) Confidence 0.19 Published 2001 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC59562 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.15

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