INT42980

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1982
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 3
Reported most in Body
Documents 139
Total Number 142
Disease Relevance 94.77
Pain Relevance 45.11

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

lyase activity (GAD1) plasma membrane (GAD1) intracellular (GAD1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
epithelium 21
neurons 14
spinal cord 3
subthalamic nucleus 2
striatum 2
GAD1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
gABA 3818 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 639 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 353 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
pregabalin 282 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 97 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 58 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate receptor 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 20 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
intrathecal 4 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Nicotine Addiction 3135 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1598 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 296 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 51 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stiff-person Syndrome 105 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Panic Disorder 35 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Autoimmune Disease 21 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 66 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory Pain 21 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 1111 99.68 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
A1 hybrid neurons also express messages for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), indicating that they could differentiate into various subsets of neuronal types.
Gene_expression (express) of GAD in neurons associated with generalized anxiety disorder
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 2002 Journal Neurobiol. Dis. Section Abstract Doc Link 12460557 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.18
There is some evidence that GAD can be prevented either through a focus on salient risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity [13], pessimistic thinking [14], family history [15], withdrawn or inhibited temperament [16], known as selective prevention programs [17], or by targeting sub-threshold symptoms in those who do not meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder (indicated prevention programs) [18].
Neg (prevented) Gene_expression (prevented) of GAD associated with generalized anxiety disorder and anxiety disorder
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2848219 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0
Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase mRNA in striatum and pallidum in an animal model of tardive dyskinesia.
Gene_expression (Expression) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in striatum associated with enkephalin and dyskinesias
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 1995 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 7544289 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.17
These findings contrast with animal models of parkinsonism, for which expression of pDYN, pENK, and GAD67 mRNA has been reported to change after striatal dopamine denervation.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 associated with parkinson's disease and dopamine
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 2007 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 17203488 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.20
Cholesterol absorption as a result of SCP supplementation
Gene_expression (supplementation) of SCP in SCP
5) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2390548 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0
Cholesterol synthesis as a result of SCP supplementation
Gene_expression (supplementation) of SCP in SCP
6) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Lipids Health Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC2390548 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Anti-GAD antibodies were detected in the blood.
Gene_expression (detected) of GAD in blood associated with generalized anxiety disorder
7) Confidence 0.65 Published 2004 Journal Arq Neuropsiquiatr Section Abstract Doc Link 15273862 Disease Relevance 1.32 Pain Relevance 0.24
Diabetes mellitus as a rare immunological complication of haemolytic uremic syndrome was suspected on the following evidence: positive anti-GAD antibodies (ELISA), elevated levels of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c, three-fold reduction of blood C-peptide concentration, negative family history for diabetes.
Gene_expression (antibodies) of GAD in blood associated with generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes mellitus and hemolytic uremic syndrome
8) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Pol. Merkur. Lekarski Section Abstract Doc Link 20369724 Disease Relevance 1.00 Pain Relevance 0.03
neo) (GAD67GFP/GFP) mice as GAD67 knockout (GAD67-/-) mice.
Gene_expression (knockout) of GAD67 associated with targeted disruption
9) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Mol Brain Section Body Doc Link PMC3023674 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.03
Pyridoxine is a coenzyme of glutamic acid decarboxylase and enhances GABA synthesis.64 Low levels of GABA in cerebrospinal fluid of infants with infantile spasms were reported.65 Pyridoxine is the first treatment of choice for infantile spasms in Japan.31,32,66 Two uncontrolled prospective open-label studies in infantile spasms revealed efficacy for infantile spasms.67,68 At dosages of pyridoxine >1 g/day (usual dose of pyridoxine 10 to 50 mg/kg/day), a complete control of infantile spasms was reported in 35% to 40% of cryptogenic cases but only 10% of symptomatic cases.67 Side effects of high-dose pyridoxine include loss of appetite, irritability and vomiting. 68
Gene_expression (coenzyme) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in cerebrospinal fluid associated with infantile spasms, gaba, vomiting and anorexia
10) Confidence 0.65 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695218 Disease Relevance 2.37 Pain Relevance 0.14
Glucocorticoid hormones can modulate GAD expression by transcriptional activation of the GAD67 promoter [38].
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD associated with generalized anxiety disorder
11) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.38
Inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and histone deactylases induce GAD67 expression [33,34].
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67
12) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.28
Western analysis carried out on small airway epithelial samples from healthy nonsmokers and healthy smokers was used to quantitatively assess GAD67 protein expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 associated with nicotine addiction
13) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.04
There was a positive correlation between GAD67 gene expression and MUC5AC at the mRNA level in both small and large airway epithelium, as well as by MUC5AC staining, suggesting a link between mucus overproduction and GAD67 overexpression in association with smoking.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 gene in epithelium associated with nicotine addiction
14) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.44
A striking increase in gene expression levels of GAD67 was observed in the large and small airway epithelium of healthy smokers compared to healthy nonsmokers, a finding confirmed at the mRNA level by TaqMan PCR; and at the protein level qualitatively by immunohistochemistry, and quantitatively by Western analysis.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in epithelium associated with nicotine addiction
15) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.28
There was a positive correlation between GAD67 gene expression and MUC5AC at the mRNA level in both small and large airway epithelium, as well as by MUC5AC staining, suggesting a link between mucus overproduction and GAD67 overexpression in association with smoking.
Gene_expression (overexpression) of GAD67 in epithelium associated with nicotine addiction
16) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.51
Western analysis was used to quantitatively assess GAD67 protein expression in small airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers and healthy smokers.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in epithelium associated with nicotine addiction
17) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.03
Interestingly, nuclear factor-kappa B activation through oxidative stress can up-regulate GAD67 expression [36], and the early growth response factor 1-related pathway also mediates GAD67 up-regulation [37].
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 associated with stress
18) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.30
Our data demonstrate that, while many of the GABAergic system genes are expressed in the human large and small airway epithelium, only GAD67 is modified by cigarette smoking, with a marked increase in gene expression levels of GAD67 in the large and small airway epithelium of healthy smokers compared with healthy nonsmokers, and with a positive correlation between GAD67 and MUC5AC, the major airway mucus-related gene [16].
Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 in epithelium associated with nicotine addiction and gabaergic
19) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.42
Interestingly, when human airway epithelial cell line 16HBE was treated with cigarette smoking extract in vitro, GAD67 gene expression was also up-regulated (not shown).


Gene_expression (expression) of GAD67 gene in epithelial cell associated with nicotine addiction
20) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2988726 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.03

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