INT442

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Context Info
Confidence 0.81
First Reported 1978
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 99
Total Number 99
Disease Relevance 11.87
Pain Relevance 72.75

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell death (PDYN) extracellular region (PDYN) plasma membrane (PDYN)
Anatomy Link Frequency
adrenal medulla 5
melanocyte 4
brain 4
neurons 4
ganglia 3
PDYN (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 515 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 190 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 140 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 97 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 43 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 19 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 17 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 10 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cerebral cortex 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Ganglion Cysts 15 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pheochromocytoma 48 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Frailty 58 98.86 Very High Very High Very High
Epilepsy 15 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 11 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 131 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 10 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 14 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
Sclerosis 4 96.28 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 1 95.56 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The amount of protection given by these substances seems to be sufficient to play a significant role in controlling the physiological levels of leu-enkephalin released into the bloodstream.
Localization (released) of leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.81 Published 1986 Journal Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, Comp. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2871993 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.34
Nicotine (10(-5), 10(-4) mol/l) significantly stimulated the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-neoendorphin and dynorphin as well as leu-enkephalin and catecholamines from cultured human phaeochromocytoma cells.
Localization (secretion) of leu-enkephalin associated with dynorphin, catecholamine, nicotine, enkephalin and pheochromocytoma
2) Confidence 0.80 Published 1987 Journal Acta Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2882641 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.86
In electron microscopic preparations, dynorphin A immunoreactivity was highly associated with dense core vesicles and was localized predominantly in axon terminals in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, although some dynorphin-labeled dense core vesicles were also observed in dendritic shafts and spines.
Localization (localized) of dynorphin in molecular layer associated with dynorphin
3) Confidence 0.80 Published 1999 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10098940 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.31
Ultrastructural localization of dynorphin in the dentate gyrus in human temporal lobe epilepsy: a study of reorganized mossy fiber synapses.
Localization (localization) of dynorphin in dentate gyrus associated with epilepsy and dynorphin
4) Confidence 0.80 Published 1999 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 10098940 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.27
The distribution and cellular localization of leu-enkephalin in the gut and pancreas was studied by immunohistochemistry using two different antisera, one specifically directed against leu-enkephalin and the other cross reacting with met-enkephalin.
Localization (localization) of leu-enkephalin in gut associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.79 Published 1978 Journal Histochemistry Section Abstract Doc Link 99394 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.56
In order to clearly identify the structures and organelles containing enkephalins, an immunohistochemical localization of Leu-enkephalin was performed at the ultrastructural level.
Localization (localization) of Leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 1979 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 460711 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.67
Localization of Leu-enkephalin in dense core vesicles of axon terminals.
Localization (Localization) of Leu-enkephalin in vesicles associated with enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 1979 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Title Doc Link 460711 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.76
Nuclear identification was based on immunohistochemical localization of serotonin and leu-enkephalin, on brainstem location, and on cytoarchitectonics.
Localization (localization) of leu-enkephalin in brainstem associated with medulla, enkephalin and serotonin
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 1995 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7560295 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.74
It is thought that dynorphin can be released from hippocampal dentate granule cells in an activity-dependent manner.
Localization (released) of dynorphin in granule cells associated with dynorphin
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 1999 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 10579209 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.36
Our data suggest that a protective mechanism exerted by dynorphin release and activation of kappa receptors may be lost in hippocampi with recurrent mossy fiber sprouting.
Localization (release) of dynorphin in mossy fiber associated with dynorphin
10) Confidence 0.78 Published 1999 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 10579209 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.58
Other tested substances including luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone release inhibiting factor, somatostatin, substance P, neurotensin, beta-endorphin. leu-enkephalin, met-enkephalin, bradykinin, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine, gamma-amino butyric acid or gamma-hydroxy butyric acid showed no CRF-like activity.
Localization (release) of leu-enkephalin in melanocyte associated with dopamine, somatostatin, enkephalin, serotonin, bradykinin and substance p
11) Confidence 0.78 Published 1979 Journal Acta Med. Okayama Section Abstract Doc Link 38634 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.53
Prodynorphin is a precursor that has multiple cleavage sites to release various dynorphin opioid peptides.
Localization (release) of dynorphin in cleavage associated with dynorphin and opioid
12) Confidence 0.78 Published 2000 Journal Electrophoresis Section Abstract Doc Link 10733211 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
In contrast, 100 Hz electro-acupuncture produced a 2 fold increase in the release of dynorphin but not enkephalin.
Localization (release) of dynorphin associated with dynorphin, enkephalin and acupuncture
13) Confidence 0.78 Published 2007 Journal Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC1810361 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 2.04
Thus, dynorphins can have protective and/or proapoptotic actions in neurons and glia, and the net effect may depend upon the distribution of receptors in a particular region and the amount of dynorphin released.
Localization (released) of dynorphin in neurons associated with dynorphin
14) Confidence 0.78 Published 2005 Journal Front. Biosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 15574363 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.53
In the present work, by studying co-localization of c-Fos immunoreactivity and preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin transcripts, we show that co-administration of the A1 receptor agonist CPA and the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 increases the striatal expression of c-fos in GABAergic enkephalinergic but not in GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons.
Localization (co-localization) of preprodynorphin in CPA associated with gabaergic and agonist
15) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 16452987 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
EA at 2 and 100Hz produces release of enkephalin and dynorphin in the spinal cord, respectively.
Localization (release) of dynorphin in spinal cord associated with dynorphin, enkephalin, acupuncture and spinal cord
16) Confidence 0.78 Published 2008 Journal Prog. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18582529 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 2.33
This enzyme (hCSF-DCE) cleaves dynorphin A, dynorphin B and alpha-neoendorphin to release Leu-enkephalin-Arg6.
Localization (release) of Leu-enkephalin-Arg6 associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.76 Published 1991 Journal J. Enzym. Inhib. Section Abstract Doc Link 1688305 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
Immunohistochemical localization of Met-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and Leu-enkephalin was studied in human adrenal medulla and pheochromocytomas at the light and electron microscopic levels.
Localization (localization) of Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 in adrenal medulla associated with medulla, enkephalin and pheochromocytoma
18) Confidence 0.76 Published 1984 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 6390360 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.95
Immunohistochemical localization of Met-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and Leu-enkephalin in human adrenal medulla and pheochromocytomas.
Localization (localization) of Leu-enkephalin in adrenal medulla associated with medulla, enkephalin and pheochromocytoma
19) Confidence 0.76 Published 1984 Journal Peptides Section Title Doc Link 6390360 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 1.06
Immunohistochemical localization of Met-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8, Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and Leu-enkephalin was studied in human adrenal medulla and pheochromocytomas at the light and electron microscopic levels.
Localization (localization) of Leu-enkephalin in adrenal medulla associated with medulla, enkephalin and pheochromocytoma
20) Confidence 0.76 Published 1984 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 6390360 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.95

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