INT4786

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1982
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 7
Total Number 18
Disease Relevance 7.94
Pain Relevance 1.76

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (GHRL) extracellular region (GHRL) cytoplasm (GHRL)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 4
neural crest 1
muscles 1
gastric antrum 1
endocrine cells 1
GHRL (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Duloxetine 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Gabapentin 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 18 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 180 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
lidocaine 1 98.28 Very High Very High Very High
abatacept 1 92.88 High High
backache 1 89.88 High High
Enkephalin 2 87.84 High High
pregabalin 1 86.20 High High
substance P 1 84.92 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Anorexia 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Fatigue 9 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 18 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Constipation 4 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 180 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 195 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 180 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Vomiting 9 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 83 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Dyspnea 4 97.56 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Ghrelin is predominately produced in the stomach, but new findings indicate that the intestinal wall is an important source of the hormone.
Gene_expression (produced) of Ghrelin in stomach
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 19794298 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0
We report this case as an unusual association of production of both a peptide hormone and a nonhormonal peptide in a patient with a tumor of "neural crest" origin.
Gene_expression (production) of peptide hormone in neural crest associated with cancer
2) Confidence 0.25 Published 1982 Journal Am. J. Gastroenterol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6175207 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.09
The levels of PTH (0 pg/ml), PTH-related peptide, vitamin D, vitamin A, IGF-1, STH, 5-HIES and interleukin 6 were within normal limits.
Gene_expression (levels) of PTH-related peptide
3) Confidence 0.19 Published 2001 Journal Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. Section Body Doc Link 11200666 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
The final 12 symptoms, contained in these three symptom clusters (Table 7) are: Lack of energy, lack of appetite, pain, constipation, nausea, difficulty sleeping, vomiting, shortness of breath, dizziness, sore muscles, problems remembering things and coughing.
Neg (lack) Gene_expression (lack) of appetite in muscles associated with pain, constipation, dizziness, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue and dyspnea
4) Confidence 0.19 Published 2003 Journal BMC Cancer Section Body Doc Link PMC317311 Disease Relevance 1.78 Pain Relevance 0.34
Gateways to clinical trials.

[90Y-DOTA-Tyr3]octreotate, Abatacept, ABT-888, ACE-011, Adefovir dipivoxil, Alosetron hydrochloride, Aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, Amlodipine, Apaziquone, Aripiprazole, AS-101, Atomoxetine hydrochloride, Atrasentan, Azacitidine; Bevacizumab, Biphasic insulin aspart, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Brivanib alaninate; CERE-120, Cetuximab, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Combretastatin A-1 phosphate, Conatumumab, CT-322; Dabigatran etexilate, Darunavir, Deforolimus, Desloratadine, Doripenem, Doxorubicin eluting beads, Duloxetine hydrochloride, Dutasteride; Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine, Exenatide, Ezetimibe, Ezetimibe/simvastatin; Fluticasone furoate, Fondaparinux sodium; Gabapentin enacarbil, Ghrelin (human), Golimumab; IC-51, IDM-2, JX-594; Lidocaine/prilocaine, Liraglutide, Lopinavir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Lumiracoxib; Men ACWY, MxdnG1; Naproxcinod; OBP-301, Omalizumab; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Pasireotide, Pazopanib hydrochloride, Pegaptanib octasodium, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegvisomant, Pemetrexed disodium, Pimecrolimus, Prasterone, Pregabalin; Raclopride, Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranibizumab, RB-006, Recombinant human relaxin H2, REG1, Regadenoson, Reximmune-C, Rilonacept; Saxagliptin, SCH-697243, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib; Tadalafil, Tapentadol hydrochloride, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Tipifarnib, Tolvaptan; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Vicriviroc, Volociximab, Vorinostat; WB-1001; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan.

Gene_expression (phosphate) of Ghrelin associated with pregabalin, abatacept, lidocaine, gabapentin and duloxetine
5) Confidence 0.17 Published 2009 Journal Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol Section Title Doc Link 19798455 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.43
The results indicated that treatment with Bt2cAMP and TPA induces the expression of multiple genes of peptide hormone and tyrosine hydroxylase and increases hormone production and secretion through morphological changes into endocrine cells.
Gene_expression (expression) of peptide hormone in endocrine cells
6) Confidence 0.10 Published 1992 Journal Virchows Arch., B, Cell Pathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1279891 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.26
However, our results did not provide evidence suggesting that obestatin production is associated with H. pylori eradication.
Gene_expression (production) of obestatin
7) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.04
Obestatin mRNA expression in the gastric fundic mucosa did not change in either group (Table 2).
Gene_expression (expression) of Obestatin mRNA
8) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.03
There was no significant difference in the ratio of ghrelin expression to obestatin expression in the plasma or gastric mucosa between before and after H. pylori eradication (Table 4).


Gene_expression (expression) of obestatin in plasma
9) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.09
No initial differences between the treatment and control groups were observed with regard to the baseline characteristics including age, body mass index (BMI), appetite, plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin, ghrelin, obestatin and TNF-?
Gene_expression (levels) of obestatin in plasma associated with obesity
10) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
However, obestatin mRNA expression decreased in the antral mucosa (-0.57±1.06 vs. 0.41±0.72, P=0.028).
Gene_expression (expression) of obestatin mRNA
11) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.05
No initial differences between the treatment and control groups were observed with regard to the baseline characteristics including age, body mass index (BMI), appetite, plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin, ghrelin, obestatin and TNF-?
Gene_expression (levels) of obestatin in plasma associated with obesity
12) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
Obestatin mRNA expression in the gastric antral mucosa decreased after H. pylori eradication in the treatment group but not in the control group (-0.57±1.06 vs. 0.41±0.72, P=0.028).
Gene_expression (expression) of Obestatin mRNA
13) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.03
Therefore, we evaluated ghrelin and obestatin production after treating H. pylori infections, through a randomised, controlled trial using healthy volunteers without gastrointestinal symptoms or peptic ulcers.


Gene_expression (production) of obestatin associated with ulcers and infection
14) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.12
The obestatin mRNA expression level in the gastric antrum decreased after H. pylori eradication.
Gene_expression (expression) of obestatin mRNA in gastric antrum
15) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.08
These data suggest that eradication therapy for H. pylori infection could modify the production of both obestatin and ghrelin.
Gene_expression (production) of obestatin associated with infection
16) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.19
There was a small difference in the obestatin mRNA expression level of gastric antrum after H. pylori eradication, which didn't influence the plasma level of obestatin.
Gene_expression (expression) of obestatin mRNA in plasma
17) Confidence 0.03 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0
It is not surprising that H. pylori infection or its treatment can affect gastric obestatin production.
Gene_expression (production) of obestatin associated with infection
18) Confidence 0.02 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.03

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