INT4803

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Context Info
Confidence 0.72
First Reported 1981
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 21
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 435
Total Number 456
Disease Relevance 59.09
Pain Relevance 182.40

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 51
brain 39
neurons 21
nucleus accumbens 14
spinal cord 11
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 1612 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 295 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 223 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 211 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 209 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 155 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 115 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 93 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 74 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 52 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Convulsion 100 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 94 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 18 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 88 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 9 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 100 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 34 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 60 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Catalepsy 30 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Alzheimer's Dementia 3 99.52 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In order to search for an influence of mGluRs on the striopallidal pathway, the effect of MPEP or of the agonist of group II mGluRs, DCG-IV, on the proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the dorso-lateral striatum was examined by an in situ hybridization.
Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with agonist
1) Confidence 0.72 Published 2002 Journal Amino Acids Section Abstract Doc Link 12373537 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.32
In order to search for an influence of mGluRs on the striopallidal pathway, the effect of MPEP or of the agonist of group II mGluRs, DCG-IV, on the proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the dorso-lateral striatum was examined by an in situ hybridization.
Transcription (expression) of PENK in striatum associated with agonist
2) Confidence 0.72 Published 2002 Journal Amino Acids Section Abstract Doc Link 12373537 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.32
The heteronuclear transcript colocalized with ppENK mRNA, demonstrating that it occurred in enkephalinergic neurons and was not the result of alternative transcription from the ppENK gene in other cells.
Transcription (transcription) of ppENK in neurons
3) Confidence 0.72 Published 2003 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12811812 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
Systemic immune challenge induces preproenkephalin gene transcription in distinct autonomic structures of the rat brain.
Transcription (transcription) of preproenkephalin in autonomic associated with enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.72 Published 2003 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 12811812 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
These results demonstrated that enkephalin transcription is induced in central autonomic neurons during immune challenge, suggesting that enkephalins are involved in the centrally orchestrated response to such stimuli.
Transcription (transcription) of enkephalin in autonomic neurons associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.72 Published 2003 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12811812 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.24
Our data suggest that this type of stress appears to be associated to an induction of ENK gene transcription in hypothalamus.
Transcription (transcription) of ENK gene in hypothalamus associated with stress
6) Confidence 0.72 Published 1992 Journal Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1490274 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.26
Since it is believed that main motor symptoms of PD are due to the overactivity of the GABAergic striopallidal pathway, the aim of the present study was to find out whether SCH 58261, a selective antagonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptors, is capable of counteracting both the catalepsy and the enhancement of proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the rat striatum, induced by haloperidol administered at 1.5 mg/kg s.c. 3 times, every 3 h.
Transcription (expression) of proenkephalin in striatum associated with adenocard, catalepsy, antagonist, gabaergic and disease
7) Confidence 0.72 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.37
Since it is believed that main motor symptoms of PD are due to the overactivity of the GABAergic striopallidal pathway, the aim of the present study was to find out whether SCH 58261, a selective antagonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptors, is capable of counteracting both the catalepsy and the enhancement of proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression in the rat striatum, induced by haloperidol administered at 1.5 mg/kg s.c. 3 times, every 3 h.
Transcription (expression) of PENK in striatum associated with adenocard, catalepsy, antagonist, gabaergic and disease
8) Confidence 0.72 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12834887 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.37
Animal studies have shown that a depletion of dopamine or blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum produces an increase in striatal proenkephalin (PENK) mRNA expression and an increase in GABAergic transmission in the globus pallidus.
Transcription (expression) of PENK in striatum associated with dopamine and gabaergic
9) Confidence 0.72 Published 2003 Journal Pol J Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 14730088 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.22
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to study the effects of a high dose of ethanol (2.5 g/kg body weight) on pro-enkephalin (pro-enk) mRNA expression in brain regions of the mesocorticolimbic system for up to 24 h after drug administration.
Transcription (expression) of enkephalin in brain
10) Confidence 0.72 Published 2006 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Body Doc Link 17047937 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
Ethanol exposure differentially alters pro-enkephalin mRNA expression in regions of the mesocorticolimbic system.
Transcription (expression) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.72 Published 2006 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Title Doc Link 17047937 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.53
On day 28, a few enkephalin-immunoreactive Purkinje cells were uniformly present throughout the cerebellum, but proenkephalin mRNA was not detected in most of these cells.
Neg (not) Transcription (detected) of proenkephalin in cerebellum associated with enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.72 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8306421 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.51
However, proenkephalin mRNA was not detected in enkephalin-immunoreactive EGL cells.
Neg (not) Transcription (detected) of proenkephalin in EGL associated with enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.72 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8306421 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
The transcription of PENK mRNA was seen two hours after the pain stimulation, its peak appeared four hours later and it disappeared eight hours later.
Transcription (transcription) of PENK mRNA
14) Confidence 0.72 Published 2001 Journal Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi Section Body Doc Link 12539735 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
METHODS: The techniques of Immunohistochemistry in situ hybridization and radioimmunoassay were applied respectively to detect the expression of Fos, the transcription of PENK mRNA, and the change of ENK level in the experimental nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve, caudal part (sp5c) of rats.
Transcription (transcription) of PENK mRNA in trigeminal nerve
15) Confidence 0.72 Published 2001 Journal Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi Section Body Doc Link 12539735 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to reveal the relationship between Fos protein expression, the transcription of preproenkephalin (PENK) mRNA, and the change of enkephalin (ENK) level initiated by experimental dental pain, and to understand the central modulation mechanism of dental pain.
Transcription (transcription) of preproenkephalin associated with pain and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.72 Published 2001 Journal Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi Section Abstract Doc Link 12539735 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.37
CONCLUSION: Fos protein may take a part in the central modulation of dental pain by initiating PENK mRNA transcription which led to the increment of ENK.


Transcription (transcription) of PENK mRNA
17) Confidence 0.72 Published 2001 Journal Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi Section Body Doc Link 12539735 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to reveal the relationship between Fos protein expression, the transcription of preproenkephalin (PENK) mRNA, and the change of enkephalin (ENK) level initiated by experimental dental pain, and to understand the central modulation mechanism of dental pain.
Transcription (transcription) of PENK associated with pain and enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.72 Published 2001 Journal Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi Section Abstract Doc Link 12539735 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.37
Previous results have shown that the relative abundance of proenkephalin mRNA in the rat heart is comparable to the levels found in the brain; however, the extractable enkephalin-containing peptide levels are much lower in the heart.
Transcription (abundance) of proenkephalin in heart associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.72 Published 1990 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2233751 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
To distinguish between these possibilities, the translational status of proenkephalin mRNA in the rat heart was established by Northern blot analysis of sucrose density gradient-sedimented polysomal fractions and compared to the striatum, which is known to efficiently translate proenkephalin transcripts.
Transcription (transcripts) of proenkephalin in striatum
20) Confidence 0.72 Published 1990 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2233751 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19

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