INT4862

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Context Info
Confidence 0.81
First Reported 1980
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 62
Total Number 63
Disease Relevance 11.57
Pain Relevance 40.28

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
adrenal medulla 7
neurons 4
cerebrospinal fluid 2
brain 2
nucleus 2
PENK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 354 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 77 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 29 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 21 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Catecholamine 21 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
corticosteroid 6 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 2 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cold Sores 22 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Herpes Simplex Virus 4 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 14 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 17 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 6 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Frailty 3 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 1 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 3 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors 6 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 25 98.72 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Immunohistochemical localization of enkephalin and substance P in the nucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal V in the medulla oblongata of the human fetus.
Localization (localization) of enkephalin in nucleus associated with medulla, enkephalin and substance p
1) Confidence 0.81 Published 1992 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 1281524 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.81
The role of stress, arousal, emotional trauma, and corticosteroid and enkephalin secretion on memory and the hippocampus, and the development of traumatic amnesia and repressed memory syndrome are detailed.
Localization (secretion) of enkephalin in hippocampus associated with stress, corticosteroid, syndrome, repression, injury, hippocampus, enkephalin and amnesia
2) Confidence 0.81 Published 1998 Journal Child Psychiatry Hum Dev Section Abstract Doc Link 9816735 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.53
Trauma-induced memory deficits appear to be secondary to abnormal neocortical and hippocampal arousal, and corticosteroid and enkephalin secretion which can induce atrophy or seizures within the hippocampus, suppress hippocampal theta activity and long term potentiation, as well as injure hippocampal pyramidal cells.
Localization (secretion) of enkephalin in pyramidal cells associated with corticosteroid, convulsion, pyramidal cell, frailty, injury, hippocampus and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.81 Published 1998 Journal Child Psychiatry Hum Dev Section Abstract Doc Link 9816735 Disease Relevance 1.20 Pain Relevance 0.61
Immunocytochemical localization of enkephalin and substance P in the dorsal tegmental nuclei in human fetal brain.
Localization (localization) of enkephalin in dorsal associated with enkephalin and substance p
4) Confidence 0.79 Published 1980 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 6160168 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.60
The peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) technique is used to examine the localization of methionine [Met 5]-enkephalin and substance P in the dorsal tegmental nuclei of the human fetal brain.
Spec (examine) Localization (localization) of enkephalin in brain associated with enkephalin and substance p
5) Confidence 0.79 Published 1980 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6160168 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
The quantity of intact proenkephalin secreted from BSC-40 cells (derived from African Green monkey kidney) was sufficient to establish the value of vaccinia virus as a mammalian cell expression vector.
Localization (secreted) of proenkephalin in kidney associated with pox virus infection
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 1986 Journal Science Section Abstract Doc Link 3754979 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.19
This suggests the use of PENK A 119-159 measurement as surrogate molecule for the release of the mature peptides derived from proenkephalin A.
Localization (release) of proenkephalin A
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 16621157 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.10
In conclusion, it appears that while changes in the secretion of proenkephalin-derived peptides may serve as a marker of PC12 cell differentiation toward chromaffin cells, an increase in the secretion of prodynorphin-derived peptides may represent a marker of NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells toward sympathetic neurons.
Localization (secretion) of proenkephalin in sympathetic associated with nerve growth factor
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 1992 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 1353443 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.83
Using a mouse model of postoperative pain, we assessed the expression of MOR and delta opioid receptors (DORs) and the efficacy of Herpes Simplex vector-mediated proenkephalin release (SHPE) preventing postoperative nociceptive sensitization induced by remifentanil or surgical incision.
Localization (release) of proenkephalin associated with nociception, herpes simplex virus, ultiva, delta opioid receptors, opioid receptor and perioperative pain
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 2009 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 19058913 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 1.16
Colocalization of proenkephalin with met-enkephalin, prohormone convertase 1, prohormone convertase 2, and carboxypeptidase E was demonstrated by double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy in alveolar macrophages, submucosal glands, cancerous cells, and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells of bronchial epithelium.
Localization (Colocalization) of proenkephalin in glands associated with enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Hum. Pathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20040394 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.77
Our findings provide evidence of a local opioid network, that is, the exact anatomical localization of proenkephalin, its functionally active peptide met-enkephalin, and the key processing enzymes as well as corresponding delta opioid receptor, linked to functionally important structures of the respiratory system.
Localization (localization) of proenkephalin in respiratory system associated with opioid receptor, enkephalin and opioid
11) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Hum. Pathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20040394 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.93
Several human tumour cell lines were screened for secretion of proenkephalin-derived peptides with an antiserum directed to its N-terminus, Met-enkephalin-Arg6,Phe7 and for proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides with an antiserum to beta-endorphin.
Localization (secretion) of proenkephalin associated with cancer and enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.78 Published 1988 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3382940 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.25
Secretion and immunocytochemical studies showed that, in wild-type Neuro-2a cells, endogenous proenkephalin and transfected proinsulin/insulin were localized to punctate secretory granules and were released via the RSP.
Localization (released) of proenkephalin in Neuro-2a
13) Confidence 0.78 Published 1998 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 9529003 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Depletion of carboxypeptidase E, a regulated secretory pathway sorting receptor, causes misrouting and constitutive secretion of proinsulin and proenkephalin, but not chromogranin A.
Localization (secretion) of proenkephalin associated with enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.78 Published 1998 Journal Endocrinology Section Title Doc Link 9529003 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.20
The functional significance of adrenal enkephalin secretion remains to be elucidated.
Localization (secretion) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.77 Published 1988 Journal Acta Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3394476 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.90
Our results also suggest the possible existence of populations of striatopallidal and striatonigral projection neurons in which substance P and enkephalin or dynorphin and enkephalin, or all three, are co-localized.
Localization (co-localized) of enkephalin in projection neurons associated with dynorphin, enkephalin, projection neuron and substance p
16) Confidence 0.75 Published 1999 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 10363817 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.99
Our results also suggest the possible existence of populations of striatopallidal and striatonigral projection neurons in which substance P and enkephalin or dynorphin and enkephalin, or all three, are co-localized.
Localization (co-localized) of enkephalin in projection neurons associated with dynorphin, enkephalin, projection neuron and substance p
17) Confidence 0.75 Published 1999 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 10363817 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.00
Although each cell line could secrete intact proenkephalin, only a mouse pituitary line was capable of processing proenkephalin to mature enkephalin peptides.
Localization (secrete) of proenkephalin in pituitary associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.73 Published 1986 Journal Science Section Abstract Doc Link 3754979 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.19
Although each cell line could secrete intact proenkephalin, only a mouse pituitary line was capable of processing proenkephalin to mature enkephalin peptides.
Localization (secrete) of proenkephalin in pituitary associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.73 Published 1986 Journal Science Section Abstract Doc Link 3754979 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.20
Secretion and immunocytochemical studies showed that, in wild-type Neuro-2a cells, endogenous proenkephalin and transfected proinsulin/insulin were localized to punctate secretory granules and were released via the RSP.
Localization (released) of proenkephalin in Neuro-2a
20) Confidence 0.73 Published 1998 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 9529003 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

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