INT4866

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 32
Total Number 37
Disease Relevance 13.02
Pain Relevance 16.16

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (GAL) Golgi apparatus (GAL) cellular_component (GAL)
response to stress (GAL) cytoplasm (GAL)
Anatomy Link Frequency
peripheral nerve 2
peripheral nervous systems 2
dorsal root ganglia 2
plasma 1
brain 1
GAL (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropeptide 67 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 42 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 38 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 13 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 20 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Deafferentation 2 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Sciatic nerve 4 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neurodegenerative Disease 6 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 30 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 8 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 11 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 33 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Diverticulitis 8 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 11 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 51 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Ankylosing Spondylitis 9 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
Seronegative Spondarthritis 8 97.76 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Physiological activity of galnon could not be explained solely by the activation of the three known galanin receptors, GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3.
Positive_regulation (activation) of galanin
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 2005 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 16297447 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.14
However, while both pathological processes failed to induce an increase in the number of sympathetic bowel-projecting neurons exhibiting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or nitric oxide synthase, axotomy, but not target-tissue inflammation, led to the upregulation in the expression pattern of galanin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide and/or Leu5-enkephalin in the affected perikarya.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of galanin in bowel associated with pathologic processes, inflammation and enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2002 Journal Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12056620 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.26
Collectively, the anti-Gal(0) IgG is elevated and vaguely correlated with the disease activity of AS/PsA although its titers in these patients were erratic.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Gal associated with spinal inflammation, disease and arthritis
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal Clin. Rheumatol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20229261 Disease Relevance 1.66 Pain Relevance 1.08
A small increase in galanin-LI was seen with age in the women (r = 0.54, p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference between pre- and postmenopausal women.
Positive_regulation (increase) of galanin
4) Confidence 0.57 Published 2005 Journal Horm. Metab. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15971152 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.11
Hence, the sensory effect of galanin may be increased under these conditions, raising the possibility that modulation of the activity of the galanin system may produce antinociception.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (increased) of galanin associated with antinociception
5) Confidence 0.50 Published 2000 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 11021973 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.37
In particular the ability of galanin to inhibit acetylcholine release, along with the observation of hyperinervation of galanin fibres in the human basal forebrain of Alzheimer's disease patients, suggest a possible role for galanin in the cholinergic dysfunction, characteristic of the disease.
Positive_regulation (hyperinervation) of galanin in forebrain associated with disease
6) Confidence 0.49 Published 2002 Journal Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord Section Abstract Doc Link 12769595 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.14
It is possible that the complex effect of GMAP may be mediated by different subtypes of GMAP receptors which recognize different portions of the GMAP sequence.
Positive_regulation (effect) of GMAP
7) Confidence 0.49 Published 1996 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9016918 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.25
Numerous reports suggest a significant role of peripheral galanin (GAL) in pain transmission; however, due to the lack of selective galanin receptor agonists and antagonists, the role of GAL receptors (GalR1-3) in pain transmission remains unclear.
Positive_regulation (role) of GAL associated with pain, antagonist and agonist
8) Confidence 0.49 Published 2006 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 16996122 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.57
METHODS: Three male kidney transplant recipients with biochemically, genetically, and histologically confirmed Fabry disease and documented Fabry myocardiopathy received the rh-alpha-Gal A, agalsidase beta, 1 mg/kg of body weight every 2 weeks by intravenous infusion and were monitored biochemically, clinically, and electrocardiographically and echocardiographically for 18 months.
Positive_regulation (received) of Gal in body
9) Confidence 0.49 Published 2004 Journal Kidney Int. Section Body Doc Link 15086478 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
The present study investigates the nature of the galanin (GAL) increase and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) decrease in the dorsal horn following peripheral nerve injury.
Spec (investigates) Positive_regulation (increase) of galanin in peripheral nerve associated with nervous system injury, dorsal horn, peripheral nerve injury and calcitonin gene-related peptide
10) Confidence 0.49 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8680859 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.47
The present study demonstrates that tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal activity fully mimicked the effect of axotomy (transection of the septohippocampal fibers) in the neurons of the nucleus of the diagonal band, and caused a dramatic, although temporary, up-regulation of galanin immunoreactivity and galanin mRNA without significant alteration in choline acetyltransferase expression.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of galanin in nucleus associated with tetrodotoxin
11) Confidence 0.49 Published 1994 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7523176 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13
Smaller numbers of cells were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase, DOPA decarboxylase, serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin and substance P.
Positive_regulation (positive) of galanin associated with serotonin, substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 1994 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7910670 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.65
Activation of peripheral galanin receptors: differential effects on nociception.
Positive_regulation (Activation) of galanin associated with nociception and pain
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2006 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Title Doc Link 16996122 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.97
Numerous reports suggest a significant role of peripheral galanin (GAL) in pain transmission; however, due to the lack of selective galanin receptor agonists and antagonists, the role of GAL receptors (GalR1-3) in pain transmission remains unclear.
Positive_regulation (role) of galanin associated with pain, antagonist and agonist
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 2006 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 16996122 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.57
In these DRGs a high proportion of the galanin mRNA(+) NPs contained CGRP mRNA and substance P mRNA.
Positive_regulation (proportion) of galanin in DRGs associated with substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide
15) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12654333 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.51
There is evidence that this upregulated galanin has trophic actions, for example promoting neurite outgrowth as well as influencing pain processing.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of galanin in neurite associated with pain
16) Confidence 0.47 Published 2005 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15893817 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.25
The 29/30 amino acid neuropeptide galanin is present in a small population of DRG neurons under normal condition but is strongly upregulated after nerve injury.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of galanin in nerve associated with nervous system injury and neuropeptide
17) Confidence 0.47 Published 2005 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15893817 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.21
The present study investigates the nature of the galanin (GAL) increase and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) decrease in the dorsal horn following peripheral nerve injury.
Spec (investigates) Positive_regulation (increase) of GAL in peripheral nerve associated with nervous system injury, dorsal horn, peripheral nerve injury and calcitonin gene-related peptide
18) Confidence 0.46 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8680859 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.47
Study 2 - Mucosal histology was normal and PGP9.5 staining was similar between groups however patients with symptomatic diverticular disease demonstrated significantly higher levels of SP, NPK, VIP, PACAP and galanin within the mucosal plexus.
Positive_regulation (levels) of galanin associated with diverticulitis and substance p
19) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal Neurogastroenterol. Motil. Section Abstract Doc Link 19453515 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.41
After peripheral nerve section, but not dorsal root section, the amount of GAL produced and present in sensory fibers proximal to the section is dramatically upregulated.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of GAL in proximal
20) Confidence 0.45 Published 1992 Journal Front Neuroendocrinol Section Abstract Doc Link 1281124 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.44

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