INT4867

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1992
Last Reported 2008
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 17
Total Number 17
Disease Relevance 6.65
Pain Relevance 8.28

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (GAL) Golgi apparatus (GAL) cellular_component (GAL)
response to stress (GAL) cytoplasm (GAL)
Anatomy Link Frequency
nerve 4
neurons 4
dorsal root ganglia 4
sensory neurons 3
bowel 2
GAL (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropeptide 26 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
orphanin 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Lasting pain 3 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
dorsal root ganglion 12 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 7 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Deafferentation 1 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 12 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 6 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 6 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 22 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 23 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Pathologic Processes 1 95.78 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 12 94.16 High High
Epilepsy 1 90.16 High High
Hypoalagesia 2 88.00 High High
Disease 3 85.32 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Peripheral nerve injury and inflammation, conditions associated with chronic pain, upregulate the synthesis of galanin in sensory neurons and spinal cord neurons, respectively.
Positive_regulation (upregulate) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of galanin in sensory neurons associated with nervous system injury, inflammation, lasting pain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2000 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 11021973 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.37
The expression of galanin (mRNA and peptide levels) is elevated following estrogen administration, neuronal activation, denervation and/or nerve injury, as well as during development.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in nerve associated with nervous system injury
2) Confidence 0.68 Published 2002 Journal Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord Section Abstract Doc Link 12769595 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.25
However, while both pathological processes failed to induce an increase in the number of sympathetic bowel-projecting neurons exhibiting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or nitric oxide synthase, axotomy, but not target-tissue inflammation, led to the upregulation in the expression pattern of galanin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide and/or Leu5-enkephalin in the affected perikarya.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in bowel associated with pathologic processes, inflammation and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 2002 Journal Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12056620 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.26
However, to what extent a similarly dramatic upregulation of galanin expression can be seen after peripheral nerve lesion in man, as has been reported for rat, mouse and monkey, remains to be analysed.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in peripheral nerve
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12654333 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.58
First, Ptf1a appears to be a master regulator, as indicated by a requirement of Ptf1a for the expression of glycinergic marker GlyT2 and a set of peptides, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), somatostatin (SOM), enkephalin (ENK), dynorphin (DYN) and galanin (GAL).
Positive_regulation (requirement) of Gene_expression (expression) of GAL associated with dynorphin, orphanin, somatostatin, neuropeptide and enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Dev. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18634777 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.96
In particular, the Neurod1/2/6 factors are essential for dynorphin and galanin expression, whereas the Lhx1/5 factors are essential for NPY expression.
Positive_regulation (essential) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin associated with dynorphin
6) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Dev. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18721803 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.62
This finding suggests that in the septohippocampal cholinergic system perturbance of electrical activity alone can lead to temporary up-regulation of galanin expression, previously attributed exclusively to a "lesion effect."
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin
7) Confidence 0.49 Published 1994 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7523176 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
Selective up-regulation of neuropeptide synthesis by blocking the neuronal activity: galanin expression in septohippocampal neurons.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in neurons associated with neuropeptide
8) Confidence 0.49 Published 1994 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 7523176 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Peripheral axotomy increases the expression of galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP) in dorsal root ganglion cells and alters the effects of intrathecal GMAP on the flexor reflex in the rat.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of GMAP in dorsal root ganglion associated with ganglion cysts, dorsal root ganglion, neuropeptide and intrathecal
9) Confidence 0.47 Published 1995 Journal Neuropeptides Section Title Doc Link 7603589 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.60
The 29/30 amino acid neuropeptide galanin is present in a small population of DRG neurons under normal condition but is strongly upregulated after nerve injury.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Gene_expression (present) of galanin in nerve associated with nervous system injury and neuropeptide
10) Confidence 0.47 Published 2005 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 15893817 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.21
After peripheral nerve section, but not dorsal root section, the amount of GAL produced and present in sensory fibers proximal to the section is dramatically upregulated.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Gene_expression (produced) of GAL in proximal
11) Confidence 0.45 Published 1992 Journal Front Neuroendocrinol Section Abstract Doc Link 1281124 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.44
Peripheral nerve injury and inflammation, conditions associated with chronic pain, upregulate the synthesis of galanin in sensory neurons and spinal cord neurons, respectively.
Positive_regulation (upregulate) of in spinal cord neurons Gene_expression (synthesis) of galanin in sensory neurons associated with nervous system injury, inflammation, lasting pain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury
12) Confidence 0.24 Published 2000 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 11021973 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.37
Thus, RTX produced marked and prolonged impairment of capsaicin-sensitive afferents and upregulation of the inhibitory neuropeptides GMAP and galanin in DRG neurons, which may underlie the prolonged effect of RTX.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of Gene_expression (produced) of GMAP in neurons associated with dorsal root ganglion, qutenza and neuropeptide
13) Confidence 0.09 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9106440 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.89
Increased levels of GMAP, VIP and nitric oxide synthase, and their mRNAs, in lumbar dorsal root ganglia of the rat following systemic resiniferatoxin treatment.
Positive_regulation (Increased) of Gene_expression (levels) of GMAP in dorsal root ganglia
14) Confidence 0.05 Published 1995 Journal Neuroreport Section Title Doc Link 8595209 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13
GAL and GMAP, can be upregulated after deaffere</sp<span style="background-color:#FFDEAD">an>ntation.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Gene_expression (expressed) of GMAP in SCG associated with deafferentation
15) Confidence 0.05 Published 1994 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 8061294 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.45
Intrathecal infusion of NT-3 globally mitigated both the increased incidence and elevated levels of galanin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression observed following CCI, reducing the former from 60% to 39%.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin messenger RNA associated with eae and intrathecal
16) Confidence 0.00 Published 2006 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 16843605 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.92
Intrathecal infusion of NT-3 globally mitigated both the increased incidence and elevated levels of galanin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression observed following CCI, reducing the former from 60% to 39%.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Gene_expression (expression) of galanin messenger RNA associated with eae and intrathecal
17) Confidence 0.00 Published 2006 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 16843605 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.91

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