INT4868

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 75
Total Number 78
Disease Relevance 22.23
Pain Relevance 29.02

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (GAL) Golgi apparatus (GAL) cellular_component (GAL)
response to stress (GAL) cytoplasm (GAL)
Anatomy Link Frequency
dorsal root ganglion 6
neurons 5
peripheral nervous systems 4
peripheral nerve 3
plasma 2
GAL (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 193 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 171 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 43 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 40 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 32 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 29 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
nociceptor 21 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 19 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 15 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Ganglion Cysts 48 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Diuresis 3 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 182 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 5 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 36 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Diverticulitis 8 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 63 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Headache 4 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Herpes Zoster 4 99.00 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Peripheral nerve injury and inflammation, conditions associated with chronic pain, upregulate the synthesis of galanin in sensory neurons and spinal cord neurons, respectively.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of galanin in sensory neurons associated with nervous system injury, inflammation, lasting pain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2000 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 11021973 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.37
These findings suggest the novel possibility that GALN1R gene expression may be regulated as a consequence of inflammatory conditions.
Gene_expression (expression) of GALN1R associated with inflammation
2) Confidence 0.77 Published 1997 Journal Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Section Abstract Doc Link 9425310 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.11
The expression of galanin (mRNA and peptide levels) is elevated following estrogen administration, neuronal activation, denervation and/or nerve injury, as well as during development.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in nerve associated with nervous system injury
3) Confidence 0.76 Published 2002 Journal Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord Section Abstract Doc Link 12769595 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.22
This finding suggests that in the septohippocampal cholinergic system perturbance of electrical activity alone can lead to temporary up-regulation of galanin expression, previously attributed exclusively to a "lesion effect."
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin
4) Confidence 0.75 Published 1994 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7523176 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
Second, Pax2 is a downstream target of Ptf1a and controls subsets of transmitter phenotypes, including the expression of GlyT2, NPY, N/OFQ, DYN, and GAL, but is dispensable for SOM or ENK expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of GAL associated with dynorphin, somatostatin and enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.75 Published 2008 Journal Dev. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18634777 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.94
First, Ptf1a appears to be a master regulator, as indicated by a requirement of Ptf1a for the expression of glycinergic marker GlyT2 and a set of peptides, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), somatostatin (SOM), enkephalin (ENK), dynorphin (DYN) and galanin (GAL).
Gene_expression (expression) of GAL associated with dynorphin, orphanin, somatostatin, neuropeptide and enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.75 Published 2008 Journal Dev. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18634777 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.96
Changes in the expression of enkephalin, galanin, dynorphin and cholecystokinin mRNA in response to restraint and formalin-induced pain are documented in hypothalamic and amygdaloid nuclei by in situ hybridization histochemical technique.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin associated with pain, dynorphin, enkephalin and cholecystokinin
7) Confidence 0.75 Published 2000 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11033323 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.47
Expression of galanin or galanin receptors in the DRG and spinal cord are altered, sometimes in a dramatic fashion, by peripheral nerve injury or inflammation.
Gene_expression (Expression) of galanin in peripheral nerve associated with dorsal root ganglion, nervous system injury, inflammation, peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord
8) Confidence 0.75 Published 1998 Journal Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9928184 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.50
Expression of galanin or galanin receptors in the DRG and spinal cord are altered, sometimes in a dramatic fashion, by peripheral nerve injury or inflammation.
Gene_expression (Expression) of galanin in peripheral nerve associated with dorsal root ganglion, nervous system injury, inflammation, peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord
9) Confidence 0.75 Published 1998 Journal Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9928184 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.50
Neuronal activity regulates expression of phenotype-specific genes, including galanin, which coexists with choline acetyltransferase in septal and basal forebrain neurons.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in forebrain
10) Confidence 0.75 Published 1994 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7523176 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
However, while both pathological processes failed to induce an increase in the number of sympathetic bowel-projecting neurons exhibiting vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or nitric oxide synthase, axotomy, but not target-tissue inflammation, led to the upregulation in the expression pattern of galanin, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide and/or Leu5-enkephalin in the affected perikarya.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in bowel associated with pathologic processes, inflammation and enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.75 Published 2002 Journal Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12056620 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.26
We demonstrate here that dynorphin, galanin, NPY, nociceptin and enkephalin expression depends on Ptf1a, indicating that these neuropeptides are expressed in inhibitory neurons.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in neurons associated with dynorphin, orphanin, neuropeptide and enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.75 Published 2008 Journal Dev. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18721803 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.68
Transganglionic degenerative atrophy is accompanied by depletion of marker neuropeptides and enzymes, and later by the expression of vicarious neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, neuropeptide Y and galanin and of the enzyme choline acetyl transferase.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin associated with frailty and neuropeptide
13) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Ann. Anat. Section Abstract Doc Link 12924468 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0.77
The presence of tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, galanin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide was studied with immunohistochemistry in uterus-innervating neurones found in the inferior mesenteric ganglia after fluorescent tracer (Fast Blue) injection into different regions of the porcine uterus (uterine cervix, paracervical, middle and paraoviductal part of the uterine horn).
Gene_expression (presence) of galanin in uterus associated with neuropeptide, enkephalin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance p
14) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Anat Histol Embryol Section Abstract Doc Link 12823101 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.28
The neuropeptide galanin is widely expressed in the central nervous system, including areas regulating emotionality [35].
Gene_expression (expressed) of galanin in central nervous system associated with neuropeptide and central nervous system
15) Confidence 0.75 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1488826 Disease Relevance 1.30 Pain Relevance 1.06
In particular, the Neurod1/2/6 factors are essential for dynorphin and galanin expression, whereas the Lhx1/5 factors are essential for NPY expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin associated with dynorphin
16) Confidence 0.75 Published 2008 Journal Dev. Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18721803 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.61
Selective up-regulation of neuropeptide synthesis by blocking the neuronal activity: galanin expression in septohippocampal neurons.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in neurons associated with neuropeptide
17) Confidence 0.75 Published 1994 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 7523176 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Galanin expression in adult human dorsal root ganglion neurons: initial observations.
Gene_expression (expression) of Galanin in dorsal root ganglion associated with ganglion cysts, root ganglion neuron and headache
18) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 12654333 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 1.28
In DRGs from a patient with migraine-like pain a comparatively small proportion expressed galanin, whereas in DRGs from a herpes zoster patient galanin mRNA(+) NPs were comparatively more frequent.
Gene_expression (expressed) of galanin in DRGs associated with pain, migraine and herpes zoster
19) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12654333 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.61
However, to what extent a similarly dramatic upregulation of galanin expression can be seen after peripheral nerve lesion in man, as has been reported for rat, mouse and monkey, remains to be analysed.
Gene_expression (expression) of galanin in peripheral nerve
20) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12654333 Disease Relevance 0.46 Pain Relevance 0.58

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