INT48832

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1993
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 2
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 48
Total Number 51
Disease Relevance 12.13
Pain Relevance 25.99

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

endoplasmic reticulum (Grip2) plasma membrane (Grip2) cytoskeleton (Grip2)
cytoplasm (Grip2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 6
spinal 3
hippocampus 2
forebrain 2
outflow 1
Grip2 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate 345 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 342 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 189 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 63 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 51 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
addiction 28 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
excitatory amino acid 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 206 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 14 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Depression 587 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Heart Rate Under Development 111 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 49 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 22 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 8 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 8 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 96 98.86 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 27 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 7 96.18 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 6 93.40 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Stimulation of presynaptic AMPA receptors by the endogenous agonist L-glutamate, or by (R,S)-AMPA, dose-dependently enhanced the Ca(2+)-dependent, tetrodotoxin-insensitive, electrically-stimulated release of [3H]D-aspartate from rat forebrain slices.
Positive_regulation (Stimulation) of AMPA in forebrain associated with tetrodotoxin, glutamate and agonist
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9286615 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.31
Given evidence that AMPA receptors in the superficial laminae mediate fast nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord, our findings suggest that an upregulation of spinal AMPA receptors contributes to hyperalgesia following peripheral nerve injury.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of AMPA in spinal associated with nociception, hyperalgesia, nervous system injury, peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord
2) Confidence 0.60 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8843072 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.79
Selective upregulation of the flip-flop splice variants of AMPA receptor subunits in the rat spinal cord after hindpaw inflammation.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of AMPA receptor in spinal cord associated with inflammation, nociceptor and spinal cord
3) Confidence 0.54 Published 2001 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 11295247 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.68
The rapid decay of EPSCs appears to be largely determined by AMPA receptor deactivation.
Spec (determined) Positive_regulation (deactivation) of AMPA receptor
4) Confidence 0.48 Published 1997 Journal J. Neurophysiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9163367 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
These results indicate: (1) AMPA receptors mediate a large component of the excitatory effects of glutamate on LC neurons; (2) activation of AMPA receptors plays an important role in the morphine withdrawal-induced activation of LC neurons; (3) AMPA antagonists can suppress many signs of morphine withdrawal in awake animals; and (4) AMPA antagonists may have therapeutic effects in humans for the treatment of opiate withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA in neurons associated with glutamate, antagonist, locus ceruleus, opiate, withdrawal and morphine
5) Confidence 0.48 Published 1996 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 8914123 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.68
By recording synaptic pairs of DRG and dorsal horn neurons, we found that activation of presynaptic kainate and AMPA receptors decreased evoked glutamate release from terminals of DRG neurons in culture.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA in neurons associated with dorsal root ganglion, glutamate and dorsal horn neuron
6) Confidence 0.41 Published 2004 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 15489026 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.79
This increase suggests that AMPA receptors contribute to deafferentation or radicular pain by at least two mechanisms: (1) up-regulation of GluR1 subunits of the AMPA receptor in deeper laminae, and (2) enhanced Ca2+ permeability of dorsal horn neurons because AMPA receptors lacking the GluR2 subunit are Ca2+ permeable.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of AMPA receptor in neurons associated with pain, dorsal horn neuron and deafferentation
7) Confidence 0.41 Published 1998 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 9509995 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.48
Stimulation of presynaptic AMPA receptors by the endogenous agonist L-glutamate, or by (R,S)-AMPA, dose-dependently enhanced the Ca(2+)-dependent, tetrodotoxin-insensitive, electrically-stimulated release of [3H]D-aspartate from rat forebrain slices.
Positive_regulation (Stimulation) of AMPA in forebrain associated with tetrodotoxin, glutamate and agonist
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9286615 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.34
Here we report that, following peripheral nerve injury (ligation of the sciatic nerve) in the rat, there is an increase in immunoreactive labelling of non-N-methyl-D-asparatate, AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionate), glutamate receptors in the superficial laminae of the lumbar spinal cord ipsilateral to the ligation.
Positive_regulation (increase) of AMPA in sciatic nerve associated with nervous system injury, glutamate receptor, sciatic nerve, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury
9) Confidence 0.40 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 8843072 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.78
More numbers of electrical stimulation were required for NO production in the molecular layer than in other layers, suggesting that AMPA receptor activation generates NO at lower concentrations through a remote interaction with NO synthase.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA in molecular layer
10) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 15062988 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
In the granule cell layer, activation of AMPA or mGlu-1 receptor produced NO uniformly, while NMDA receptor activation produced NO in discontinuous areas of this layer.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA in granule cell associated with nmda receptor
11) Confidence 0.34 Published 2004 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 15062988 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
In the down-regulated rats, the O2 consumption did not significantly increase (4.0 +/- 1.5 ml O2 x min(-1) x 100 g(-1) compared to 3.3 +/- 1.7 in the contralateral cortex) after AMPA.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increase) of AMPA in cortex
12) Confidence 0.25 Published 2004 Journal Neurochem. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15202775 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.37
We tested the hypothesis that chronic stimulation of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) glutamate receptors with an agonist causes down-regulation of the receptor protein and a decrement in basal and/or stimulated cerebral O2 consumption.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of AMPA associated with glutamate receptor and agonist
13) Confidence 0.25 Published 2004 Journal Neurochem. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15202775 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Alkaline transients mediated by selective synaptic activation of AMPA receptors were coupled to a transient fall in extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o). 3.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA
14) Confidence 0.22 Published 1994 Journal J. Neurophysiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7529824 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
These results are accounted for most easily by a selective increase in postsynaptic AMPA receptor function, but one type of presynaptic modification-an increase in the number of release sites without an overall change in the probability of release-also could account for these results (assuming that the level of glutamate release before LTP induction fully saturated NMDA, but not AMPA, receptors).
Positive_regulation (increase) of AMPA receptor associated with glutamate and long-term potentiation
15) Confidence 0.18 Published 1998 Journal J. Neurophysiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9497399 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.72
The results obtained indicate that: (a) activation of 5-HT1A receptors stimulated PRL secretion on day 16 and inhibited it on day 23; activation of 5-HT2 receptors stimulated PRL secretion on days 16 and 23, whereas activation of 5-HT3 receptors inhibited PRL release only on day 23; (b) activation of AMPA receptors inhibited PRL secretion on day 23, but not on day 16 and (c) a cross-talk is apparent between 5-HT2 and AMPA receptors in the regulation of PRL secretion, the stimulatory effect of DOI being blocked by AMPA.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA
16) Confidence 0.17 Published 2001 Journal J. Physiol. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11800286 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.41
In functional assays on glutamate receptors expressed in oocytes by rat cerebral cortex poly(A+) RNA, 7-chloro-5-(N-oxyaza)-QX (12a) and 7-nitro-5-(N-oxyaza)-QX (12e) have Kb values of 0.63 and 0.31 microM for NMDA/glycine receptors, and are 6- and 4-fold selective for NMDA over AMPA receptors, respectively. 5-(N-Oxyaza)-7-substituted-QXs 12a-e all have surprisingly high in vivo potency as anticonvulsants in a mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. 7-Chloro-5-(N-oxyaza)-QX (12a), 7-bromo-5-(N-oxyaza)-QX (12b), and 7-methyl-5-(N-oxyaza)-QX (12c) have ED50 values of 0.82, 0.87, and 0.97 mg/kg i.v., respectively.
Positive_regulation (selective) of AMPA in poly associated with convulsion, glutamate receptor, anticonvulsant, cerebral cortex and potency
17) Confidence 0.16 Published 1997 Journal J. Med. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 9357535 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.50
Prolonged activity blockade (1-3 days) with an AMPA receptor antagonist increased cell surface (synaptic and extrasynaptic) glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) and GluR2 but not GluR3, as well as GluR1/2 co-localization on the cell surface and total GluR1 and GluR2 protein levels.
Positive_regulation (increased) of AMPA associated with glutamate receptor and antagonist
18) Confidence 0.16 Published 2009 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 19674091 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.56
CONCLUSIONS: Spinal mu-receptor activation and AMPA receptor antagonism showed a synergistic antinociception in response to an acute thermal stimulus.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA in Spinal
19) Confidence 0.15 Published 1998 Journal Anesthesiology Section Body Doc Link 9743410 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Baroreflex mediated bradycardia is dependent upon activation of AMPA receptors to a greater extent than NMDA receptors 3.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AMPA associated with heart rate under development and nmda receptor
20) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2964734 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.12

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