INT49474

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 1995
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 24
Total Number 27
Disease Relevance 20.11
Pain Relevance 10.03

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds (Hpse) extracellular region (Hpse) cell adhesion (Hpse)
nucleus (Hpse) carbohydrate metabolic process (Hpse) lysosome (Hpse)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pituitary 2
plasma 1
parasympathetic 1
hippocampus 1
thyroid 1
Hpse (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Clonidine 16 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 729 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 59 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Multiple sclerosis 105 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 43 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 770 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 162 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 201 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 16 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 27 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Multiple Sclerosis 396 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 745 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 335 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 27 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 813 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 162 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 721 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Recurrence 17 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Starvation 20 98.58 Very High Very High Very High
Weight Gain 14 98.56 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
An HPLC spectrum of the HEP extract is shown in Fig. 1.


Gene_expression (spectrum) of HEP
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2005 Journal Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC1193542 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0
The OVX rats were randomly divided into three groups: vehicle treated (OVX, n = 8); estrogen treated (E2, n = 10); and HEP extract treated (HEP, n = 9).
Gene_expression (extract) of HEP
2) Confidence 0.48 Published 2005 Journal Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC1193542 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The present studies were undertaken to determine levels of the HPA hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone across 10 days of withdrawal following chronic 'binge' pattern cocaine administration (3 x 15 mg/kg/day at hourly intervals) for 14 days.
Spec (determine) Gene_expression (levels) of HPA hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone associated with withdrawal and cocaine
3) Confidence 0.48 Published 2003 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12576179 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
Systemic coadministration of CLO and HEP produced a significant elevation in ACh levels.
Gene_expression (produced) of HEP associated with clonidine
4) Confidence 0.40 Published 1995 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 7562554 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.10
Comparison between the two treatment combinations shows that, although CLO coadministration reduces the effect of PHY on ACh levels, HEP administered to animals pretreated with CLO produces a stronger effect than HEP alone.
Gene_expression (produces) of HEP associated with clonidine
5) Confidence 0.35 Published 1995 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 7562554 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.05
The interrelationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and expression of central opioids is determined in ischemic Sprague-Dawley rats to support the therapeutic role of naloxone against cerebral ischemia.
Gene_expression (expression) of HPA in pituitary associated with cv general 4 under development, ischemia, narcan and opioid
6) Confidence 0.29 Published 2003 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 12951192 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.44
However, the present data show that the attenuation of the HPA axis and the reduced activation of the PVN which is happening between D16 and D19 of pregnancy occur without changes in either LSV or MeA, suggesting that different mechanisms may operate at different times in the reproductive cycle.
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA associated with amygdala
7) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2994639 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.17
Whilst changes in pituitary drive between D16 and D19 may partly account for the reduced HPA response, the present data clearly show that there is also a marked reduction in stress-induced activation of the PVN.
Gene_expression (response) of HPA in pituitary associated with stress
8) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2994639 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.03
Immediate-early gene mapping studies have indicated that the LSV and MeA are key areas gating afferent activation of the PVN and which contribute to adaptive changes in PVN activation and HPA responsiveness.
Gene_expression (responsiveness) of HPA associated with amygdala
9) Confidence 0.19 Published 2010 Journal Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2994639 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.15
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus regulate HPA axis by glucocorticoid negative feedback.
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA in hippocampus associated with hippocampus
10) Confidence 0.19 Published 2008 Journal Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2532603 Disease Relevance 1.31 Pain Relevance 0.08
These two axes form the key efferent links in the "defeat" (HPA axis) and "defense" (SAM axis) reactions [27,28].
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA
11) Confidence 0.14 Published 2005 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC1236959 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.16
Although it is difficult to compare among studies the absolute plasma levels of estradiol exhibited by women before being exposed to acute stressors because different measurement methods were used, it is worth mentioning that, in all the studies analyzed in this section, independently of the replacement regimen followed, the HPA axis always displayed a positive response when plasma levels of estradiol were relatively low (?
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA in plasma
12) Confidence 0.11 Published 2010 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC2890612 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.07
Besides, it has been established that in EAE the HPA axis is activated in during clinical exacerbations, and that levels of corticosterone decrease as clinical signs remit [55].
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA associated with multiple sclerosis
13) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2958904 Disease Relevance 1.71 Pain Relevance 0.37
Analysis of another indicator of HPA axis activity and regulation, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, showed an increase in all groups of animals compared with their controls, 21 days after the onset of experiment (figure 1D; F: 14,74, dF: 7), indicating a normal regulation of the HPA axis.


Gene_expression (expression) of HPA
14) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2958904 Disease Relevance 1.23 Pain Relevance 0.07
However, there is emerging evidence that GC sensitivity of immune cells is impaired in MS [56]: while the HPA axis responds to inflammation during relapses [57], this response may be insufficient to control the inflammation
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA in immune cells associated with multiple sclerosis, inflammation and recurrence
15) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2958904 Disease Relevance 1.50 Pain Relevance 0.37
Furthermore, also in mice infected with murine cytomegalovirus, IL-6 is mediating the activation of the HPA axis as shown by IL-6 immunoneutralisation in mice in which the central drive of the HPA axis is abolished by CRH gene deletion (686).
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA associated with cytomegalovirus infection
16) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Neuroendocrinology Section Body Doc Link PMC2229370 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.12
Indeed, during starvation, there is a concerted adaptation in the GH axis, the HPT axis and the HPA axis.
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA associated with starvation
17) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Neuroendocrinology Section Body Doc Link PMC2229370 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, animal models for arthritis have shown a role for the HPA axis, sympathetic, parasympathetic, and peripheral nervous systems.
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA in sympathetic associated with arthritis
18) Confidence 0.04 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC333413 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.61
Correlation between blunted HPA axis and disease
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA associated with disease
19) Confidence 0.04 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC333413 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.27
In humans, ovine CRH, hypoglycemia, or psychological stresses have been used to stimulate the HPA axis.
Gene_expression (axis) of HPA associated with stress and hypoglycemia
20) Confidence 0.04 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC333413 Disease Relevance 1.85 Pain Relevance 0.52

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