INT50055

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Context Info
Confidence 0.50
First Reported 1993
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 36
Total Number 43
Disease Relevance 19.74
Pain Relevance 8.98

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

intracellular (Rac1) enzyme binding (Rac1) GTPase activity (Rac1)
cytoplasm (Rac1) cell proliferation (Rac1) cell motility (Rac1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 3
liver 1
brain 1
bladder 1
trapezius 1
Rac1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Botox 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcium channel 1 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Thermal hyperalgesia 1 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Migraine 11 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
lidocaine 3 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Pyramidal cell 19 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Brush evoked pain 1 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 33 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 1 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Spasticity 19 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Migraine Disorders 8 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Cervical Cancer 13 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Vesicoureteral Reflux 2 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Frailty 10 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Torticollis 11 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 6 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Myoclonus 3 98.84 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Overall analysis of postoperative pain at rest showed a significant reduction in the botulinum toxin group vs. glyceryl trinitrate group, whereas pain during defecation and time of healing were similar.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of botulinum toxin
1) Confidence 0.50 Published 2006 Journal Dis. Colon Rectum Section Body Doc Link 16990976 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0
Interestingly, targeted inhibition of Rac1 GTPase via a dominant negative approach has been shown to similarly exert anti-oxidative stress effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in the liver [26].
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Rac1 in liver associated with stress, reperfusion injury and ischemia
2) Confidence 0.47 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.42 Pain Relevance 0.34
Effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of spasmodic torticollis.
Negative_regulation (Effectiveness) of botulinum toxin associated with torticollis
3) Confidence 0.46 Published 1993 Journal Eur. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 8467837 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.23
Inhibition of the small GTP-binding protein Rac1 ameliorated post-SCI changes in spine morphology, attenuated injury-induced hyperexcitability of wide-dynamic range neurons, and progressively increased pain thresholds over a 3 d period.
Negative_regulation (Inhibition) of Rac1 in neurons associated with pain, injury, frailty and hyperexcitability
4) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 19052208 Disease Relevance 1.55 Pain Relevance 0.92
PURPOSE: We assessed the generation of vesicoureteral reflux before and after injection of botulinum toxin A into the trigone of patients with nonneurogenic overactive bladder, and evaluated its short-term efficacy.
Negative_regulation (injection) of botulinum toxin in bladder associated with vesicoureteral reflux and overactive bladder
5) Confidence 0.37 Published 2007 Journal J. Urol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17296399 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
RESULTS: Patients randomized to receive botulinum toxin had lower daily average and maximal visual analog scores throughout the study period.
Negative_regulation (receive) of botulinum toxin
6) Confidence 0.37 Published 2003 Journal Dis. Colon Rectum Section Body Doc Link 12907905 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A against painful limb myoclonus of spinal cord origin.
Negative_regulation (Effectiveness) of botulinum toxin in limb associated with pain, myoclonus, spinal cord and botox
7) Confidence 0.37 Published 1994 Journal Mov. Disord. Section Title Doc Link 8196691 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.57
DISCUSSION: Intracutaneous injections of botulinum toxin after median and ulnar nerve block represent an effective and mildly painful technique to treat palmar hyperhidrosis and may be as safe as subepidermal injections.


Negative_regulation (injections) of botulinum toxin in ulnar nerve
8) Confidence 0.37 Published 2001 Journal Dermatology (Basel) Section Body Doc Link 11752820 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
METHOD: A total of 62 outpatients were randomly assigned to receive botulinum toxin or lidocaine pomade.
Negative_regulation (receive) of botulinum toxin
9) Confidence 0.36 Published 2002 Journal Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. Section Body Doc Link 12619423 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
Forty days after hemorrhoidectomy in the glyceryl trinitrate group, maximum resting pressure values were similar to preoperative ones, whereas the values were still reduced in the botulinum toxin group.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of botulinum toxin
10) Confidence 0.36 Published 2006 Journal Dis. Colon Rectum Section Body Doc Link 16990976 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0
Intramuscular injection of Botulinum toxin, in carefully selected cases, provides short term reduction of focal muscle overactivity, and may facilitate activation of relatively 'inhibited' muscles and assist the restoration of more appropriate motor patterns.
Negative_regulation (injection) of Botulinum toxin in muscle
11) Confidence 0.36 Published 2007 Journal Disabil Rehabil Section Abstract Doc Link 18033608 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.13
RESULTS: Neck pain values decreased from 4.3+/- 2.4 to 3.3+/- 2.0 after saline injections and from 4.1+/- 2.1 to 3.3+/- 2.2 after botulinum toxin A.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of botulinum toxin in Neck
12) Confidence 0.35 Published 2006 Journal Clin J Pain Section Body Doc Link 16340597 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
CONCLUSIONS: Hand injection of botulinum toxin A appears to be an effective treatment for intractable digital ulcerations and rest pain in patients with severe vasospastic disorders.
Negative_regulation (injection) of botulinum toxin
13) Confidence 0.35 Published 2007 Journal Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Section Body Doc Link 17255677 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Even after controlling for a high placebo effect, and after dose stratification, no significant effect of botulinum toxin A in reducing migraine frequency/month was seen over placebo.
Neg (no) Negative_regulation (effect) of botulinum toxin
14) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal Pharmacotherapy Section Body Doc Link 19558252 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Neuromuscular blockade via injection of alcohol, phenol, or botulinum toxin reduces the tone of overactive muscles in order to restore the appropriate balance between agonists and antagonists.
Negative_regulation (blockade) of botulinum toxin in muscles associated with antagonist, agonist and alcohol
15) Confidence 0.35 Published 2003 Journal J. Child Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 13677571 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.25
Furthermore, deletion of Rac1 GTPase in mouse rod photoreceptors via a Cre/Lox approach has been shown to strongly protect rod photoreceptors against photo-oxidative stress [27].
Negative_regulation (deletion) of Rac1 in photoreceptors associated with stress
16) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 0.33
The elevation of Rac GTPase activation appears to contribute to the pathology following ischemic stress as evidenced by our finding that administration of a Rac GTPase inhibitor, NSC23766 or Rac1 antisense oligonucleotides [7] attenuated apoptotic neuronal cell death following GCI.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of Rac1 in neuronal associated with stress, ischemia, apoptosis and death
17) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0.24
Additionally, Kahles and colleagues have demonstrated that in vivo Rac1 inhibition via administration of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, prevented ischemia/reperfusion-induced blood brain barrier disruption [3].
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Rac1 in brain associated with ischemia
18) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 1.27 Pain Relevance 0.29
The duration of effectiveness of botulinum toxin for spasticity is from 3-6 months.
Negative_regulation (effectiveness) of botulinum toxin associated with spasticity
19) Confidence 0.34 Published 1998 Journal J Med Assoc Thai Section Abstract Doc Link 9676073 Disease Relevance 0.94 Pain Relevance 0.07
Taken altogether, our findings suggest NSC23766 to be an effective Rac1 inhibitor, having the ability to counteract Rac1 activation at 3 h following cerebral ischemia.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of Rac1 associated with cv general 4 under development and ischemia
20) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2935374 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.25

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