INT50315

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Context Info
Confidence 0.61
First Reported 1994
Last Reported 2007
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 20
Total Number 25
Disease Relevance 1.96
Pain Relevance 11.22

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
head 4
5-HT neurons 1
htr (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
tramadol 35 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 21 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Cannabinoid 10 99.26 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 27 99.22 Very High Very High Very High
Kappa opioid receptor 15 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
fluoxetine 23 98.94 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 6 98.78 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 5 98.76 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 16 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 5 98.62 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Shock 4 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 7 96.96 Very High Very High Very High
Tourette's Syndrome 5 96.62 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Dependence 2 94.88 High High
Injury 9 91.28 High High
Anxiety Disorder 1 90.56 High High
Suicidal Behaviour 1 89.68 High High
Lifespan 1 79.64 Quite High
Affective Disorder 3 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Two derivatives that lack the methyl group in their chemical structures, 5- (5-FT) and 6-fluorotryptamine (6-FT), did not induce the HTR.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (induce) of HTR
1) Confidence 0.61 Published 1995 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 7617148 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
The induced HTR was depressed by pretreatment with cycloheptadine, p-chlorophenylalanine or fluoxetine, but was potentiated by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR associated with fluoxetine
2) Confidence 0.61 Published 1995 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 7617148 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
The frequency of DOI induced HTR was observed immediately after DOI injection.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR
3) Confidence 0.61 Published 2007 Journal Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Section Body Doc Link 17937861 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In HTR test, protopine at doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg dose dependently increase the number of 5-HTP-induced HTR.
Positive_regulation (increase) of HTR
4) Confidence 0.58 Published 2006 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 16530230 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.47
In HTR test, protopine at doses of 5, 10, 20 mg/kg dose dependently increase the number of 5-HTP-induced HTR.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR
5) Confidence 0.58 Published 2006 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 16530230 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.47
The tested cannabinoids reduced the frequencies of both DOI-induced HTR and ESR in a dose-dependent fashion.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR associated with cannabinoid
6) Confidence 0.55 Published 2001 Journal Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 11267636 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.51
OBJECTIVE: To develop a mouse model to mimic the behavioral and neurochemical changes of Tourette syndrome (TS) by 1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) induction and to investigate the effects of fluoxetine and haloperidol on head twitch response (HTR) induced by DOI.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR in head associated with tourette's syndrome and fluoxetine
7) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Section Abstract Doc Link 17937861 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.17
The results suggest that the HTR induced by 5- and 6-FMT may result from increased activity of central 5-HT neurons, probably due to increased 5-HT levels after MAO-A inhibition.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR in 5-HT neurons
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 1995 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 7617148 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
CONCLUSIONS: The levels of DA and HVA are reduced in mice with DOI-induced HTR.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Section Body Doc Link 17937861 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In both acute and chronic trials, the frequency of DOI-induced HTR decreased significantly in mice administered with haloperidol alone or together with fluoxetine (P < 0.05), but it did not change significantly in mice administered with fluoxetine alone compared with the normal saline group.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR
10) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Section Body Doc Link 17937861 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Haloperidol can inhibit DOI-induced HTR in mice, but fluoxetine can not.


Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR
11) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi Section Body Doc Link 17937861 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Historical unresolved grief is the associated affect that accompanies HTR; this grief may be considered fixated, impaired, delayed, and/or disenfranchised.
Positive_regulation (accompanies) of HTR
12) Confidence 0.40 Published 2003 Journal J Psychoactive Drugs Section Abstract Doc Link 12733753 Disease Relevance 1.25 Pain Relevance 0.23
The protopine isolated from a Chinese herb Dactylicapnos scandens Hutch was identified as an inhibitor of both serotonin transporter and noradrenaline transporter in vitro assays. 5-hydroxy-DL-tryptophan(5-HTP)-induced head twitch response (HTR) and tail suspension test were adopted to study whether protopine has anti-depression effect in mice using reference antidepressant fluoxetine and desipramine as positive controls.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR in head associated with desipramine, antidepressant, depression, noradrenaline, serotonin and fluoxetine
13) Confidence 0.39 Published 2006 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 16530230 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.48
Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonists, naloxone and diprenorphine (M5050), reversed the effect of tramadol on 5-HTP-induced HTR dose-dependently.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR associated with tramadol, antagonist, narcan and opioid receptor
14) Confidence 0.37 Published 2003 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12570923 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.32
Interestingly, in contrast to the selective delta opioid receptor antagonist NTI, beta-FNA, a selective mu receptor antagonist, and nor-BNI, a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist, antagonized the attenuation of 5-HTP-induced HTR by tramadol.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR associated with tramadol, antagonist, kappa opioid receptor and opioid receptor
15) Confidence 0.37 Published 2003 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12570923 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.31
Tramadol attenuated 5-HTP-induced HTR in a dose-dependent manner as morphine.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR associated with tramadol and morphine
16) Confidence 0.37 Published 2003 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12570923 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.23
Pretreatment with parachlorophenylalanine increased HTR. 4.
Positive_regulation (increased) of HTR
17) Confidence 0.25 Published 1994 Journal Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry Section Abstract Doc Link 8208989 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.34
The effect of chronic administration of antidepressants and electroconvulsive shock (ESC) on the hypothermic response (HTR) induced by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyramino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) as an index of the function of 5-HT1A receptors was investigated in the rat. 2. 8-OH-DPAT dose-dependently decreased the rectal temperature. 3.
Spec (investigated) Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR associated with antidepressant and shock
18) Confidence 0.25 Published 1994 Journal Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry Section Abstract Doc Link 8208989 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.26
In conclusion, administration of tramadol systemically inhibits 5-HTP-induced HTR in mice by activating opiatergic system in the CNS.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR associated with tramadol
19) Confidence 0.25 Published 2003 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12570923 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.27
Here we have investigated the effect of tramadol in mice on 5-hydroxyptrytophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch response (HTR), which is an animal model for the activation of the CNS 5-HT(2A) receptors in mice.
Positive_regulation (induced) of HTR in head associated with tramadol
20) Confidence 0.25 Published 2003 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12570923 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.14

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