INT5039

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Context Info
Confidence 0.68
First Reported 1981
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 5
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 67
Total Number 72
Disease Relevance 27.97
Pain Relevance 37.36

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Gal) Golgi apparatus (Gal) response to stress (Gal)
cytoplasm (Gal)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 7
dorsal root ganglia 6
nucleus 5
spinal 3
dorsal horn 3
Gal (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropeptide 93 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 48 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
neuralgia 11 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Antinociceptive 13 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Face pain 4 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Sciatic nerve 26 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Peripheral nerve injury 11 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
bradykinin 2 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 34 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn neuron 12 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Hepatitis 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 37 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 33 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Facial Pain 4 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 36 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Irritable Bowel Syndrome /

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Super

10 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 9 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 79 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 2 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Induced Neurotoxicity 3 99.48 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Rats induced to drink ethanol ad libitum, by gradually increasing the concentration from 1% to 9% v/v without adding sugar or flavoring, exhibited a similar stimulation of GAL mRNA in the PVN and GAL immunoreactivity in the DMN and PVN. (3).
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of GAL in PVN
1) Confidence 0.68 Published 2003 Journal Physiol. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 12818715 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.45
Ethanol intake increases galanin mRNA in the hypothalamus and withdrawal decreases it.
Positive_regulation (increases) of galanin mRNA in hypothalamus associated with withdrawal
2) Confidence 0.68 Published 2003 Journal Physiol. Behav. Section Title Doc Link 12818715 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.28
A marked increase in the number of galanin/galanin message-associated peptide (GAL/GMAP)-immunoreactive cell bodies was also observed.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAL
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 8061294 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.46
GAL and GMAP, can be upregulated after deafferentation.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of GAL associated with deafferentation
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 8061294 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.44
We conclude that the upregulation of galanin in an individual neuron is preceded by downregulation of its capsaicin sensitivity both in NGF-dependent peptidergic and in GDNF-dependent non-peptidergic neurons, indicating a change in phenotype.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of galanin in neuron associated with nerve growth factor and qutenza
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal Exp Brain Res Section Abstract Doc Link 12955388 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.80
These results raise the possibility that up-regulation of galanin and NPY may play a role in the disappearance of vibrissae-related cellular patterns in the brainstem of rats that sustain neonatal ION damage.
Positive_regulation (regulation) of galanin in brainstem associated with medulla
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 1996 Journal Somatosens Mot Res Section Abstract Doc Link 8844957 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.53
After peripheral nerve injury, up-regulation of galanin has been found in sensory neurons in both monkey and rat dorsal root ganglia.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of galanin in dorsal root ganglia associated with nervous system injury and peripheral nerve injury
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2007 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17331205 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.59
In vivo administration of aFGF counteracted the axotomy-induced increase in galanin and NPY, whereas bFGF only suppressed NPY upregulation.
Positive_regulation (increase) of galanin
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 1996 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 8916273 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.77
However, endogenous galanin may not play a significant role in suppressing nociceptive input after partial ischaemic peripheral nerve injury, as the upregulation of galanin is moderate.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of galanin in peripheral nerve associated with nociception, nervous system injury and peripheral nerve injury
9) Confidence 0.67 Published 1999 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 10051743 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.67
Thus, after light SLNC, a modest upregulation of galanin was observed, mainly in small-sized neurons.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of galanin in neurons
10) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal J. Chem. Neuroanat. Section Abstract Doc Link 17693056 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.63
Rapid and marked increases of preprogalanin and preprodynorphin mRNA were observed on the side of the injection, but the increase of preproenkephalin A mRNA level was less pronounced than that of the other two mRNAs, indicating that these peptides have different roles in the dorsal horn analgesic mechanism and that galanin, in addition to opioid peptides, may have a highly specific role in this mechanism.
Positive_regulation (increases) of galanin in dorsal horn associated with analgesic, dorsal horn and opioid
11) Confidence 0.67 Published 1992 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 1283628 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.43
The spinal content of CGRP and SP decreased significantly 4 h after CRD, while galanin and VIP levels increased gradually and reached highest level at 24 h (p<0.05).
Positive_regulation (increased) of galanin in spinal associated with substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide
12) Confidence 0.67 Published 2005 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 16084604 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 1.06
Orofacial pain increases mRNA level for galanin in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of the rat.
Positive_regulation (increases) of galanin in nucleus associated with face pain
13) Confidence 0.67 Published 1992 Journal Peptides Section Title Doc Link 1283628 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.52
Strong upregulation of galanin, another marker of nerve regeneration, was also detected on day 5 and 10.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of galanin in nerve
14) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC3019206 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.46
This effect was likely to be mediated by activation of spinal galanin receptors.
Positive_regulation (activation) of galanin in spinal
15) Confidence 0.67 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 14660014 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.42
Increase of galanin mRNA in lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons of adult rats after partial sciatic nerve ligation.
Positive_regulation (Increase) of galanin mRNA in dorsal root ganglion associated with ganglion cysts, neuralgia, root ganglion neuron and sciatic nerve
16) Confidence 0.67 Published 1999 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Title Doc Link 10218889 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.68
Nobiletin suppressed GalN/LPS-induced increases in plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and hepatic mRNA levels for inducible NO synthase and DNA fragmentation.
Positive_regulation (increases) of GalN in plasma associated with necrosis and cancer
17) Confidence 0.63 Published 2010 Journal J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20354348 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.10
After peripheral tissue inflammation galanin-R1 receptor mRNA levels decrease and galanin-R2 receptor mRNA levels increase.
Positive_regulation (increase) of galanin associated with inflammation
18) Confidence 0.62 Published 1998 Journal Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9928186 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.94
Nobiletin, the most important compound in the n-hexane-soluble fraction, also had suppressive effects on liver injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride, acetaminophen and GalN/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in addition to liver injury induced GalN.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GalN in liver associated with paracetamol and injury
19) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20354348 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.10
Since galanin is increased in Alzheimer's disease brain, our results suggest that galanin may be involved in cholinergic dysfunctions that occur in Alzheimer's disease.
Positive_regulation (increased) of galanin in brain associated with disease
20) Confidence 0.53 Published 1999 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 10657492 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.19

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