INT50595

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Context Info
Confidence 0.49
First Reported 1993
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 16
Total Number 16
Disease Relevance 9.65
Pain Relevance 4.24

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytoplasm (HRASLS)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neuronal 1
plasma 1
anterior 1
nasal 1
uterine 1
HRASLS (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Clonidine 5 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 84 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
dorsal root ganglion 33 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 17 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 56 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
nociceptor 8 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Neuronal excitability 1 95.18 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 57 95.00 High High
cytokine 43 94.24 High High
Opioid 3 94.20 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Sickle Cell Anemia 86 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 85 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Bordatella Infection 3 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Acute Chest Syndrome 8 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 34 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Nasal Polyps 24 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 46 98.58 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Sinusitis 24 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 5 98.28 Very High Very High Very High
Conjunctivitis 7 97.20 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
G polymorphism creates a c-MYB binding site, which can activate COX-2 expression, and displays a higher promoter activity [15].
Positive_regulation (creates) of a c
1) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2991351 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.13
Clonidine increases membrane-associated phospholipase A 2.
Positive_regulation (increases) of phospholipase associated with clonidine
2) Confidence 0.28 Published 2005 Journal Eur J Anaesthesiol Section Title Doc Link 16318667 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.34
We conclude that alpha2B-adrenoceptors can couple to intracellular Ca2+ increases which may involve prior activation of phospholipase C.
Positive_regulation (activation) of phospholipase
3) Confidence 0.23 Published 1998 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9877083 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.36
However, a significant component of the response to oxytocin could be blocked by pertussis toxin, indicating Gi-mediated phospholipase C activation (by either alpha i or beta gamma subunits).
Positive_regulation (activation) of phospholipase associated with bordatella infection
4) Confidence 0.19 Published 1995 Journal J. Reprod. Fertil. Section Abstract Doc Link 7636809 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.12
In search of proteins regulating the mu-opioid receptor endocytosis, we have recently established that activation of phospholipase D (PLD)2 is required for agonist-induced mu-opioid receptor endocytosis.
Positive_regulation (activation) of phospholipase associated with agonist and opioid receptor
5) Confidence 0.17 Published 2004 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 14720217 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
[Usefulness of serum pancreatic phospholipase A2 determination in patients with various pancreatic diseases].
Positive_regulation (pancreatic) of phospholipase associated with pancreatitis
6) Confidence 0.08 Published 1993 Journal Kaku Igaku Section Title Doc Link 8230832 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.11
While the predominant effect of PAF in the rabbit cornea appears to be to activate the phospholipase A2/cyclooxygenase pathway [5] and to release leukotrienes that cause conjunctivitis [23], the work presented here has shown that PAF activates the phospholipase C-mediated events in HCECs to release cytokines.
Positive_regulation (activate) of phospholipase in cornea associated with conjunctivitis and cytokine
7) Confidence 0.07 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2693427 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.19
2 may be the result of an autocrine/paracrine feedback loop involving the upregulation of the phospholipase A2/COX/PGES-1 axis and eicosanoid release [3].
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of phospholipase
8) Confidence 0.05 Published 2007 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2206385 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.16
Two isoforms, one constitutive (COX-1) and the other inducible (COX-2) exist, but in human labor it is the COX-2 enzyme that converts free arachidonic acid (produced from glycophospholipids in the cell membrane by increased phospholipase activity) into the PG precursors – PGH-2 and PGG-2.68,69 Triggers such as increased cortisol from maternal or fetal stress and/or inflammatory cytokines lead to increased production of PGs which override uterine quiescence, leading to functional withdrawal of progesterone.


Positive_regulation (increased) of phospholipase in uterine associated with stress, inflammation, withdrawal and cytokine
9) Confidence 0.04 Published 2010 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2861440 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.28
may stimulate the release of PGE2, and hence activate phospholipase II, enhancing the production of inflammatory eicosanoids.261 In support of an association between PGA and anterior uveitis, the inflammation appears to occur in the ipsilateral treated eye,261 improve after cessation and recur after rechallenge.256 Excessive doses may induce iritis.262 Affected subjects may have history of prior inflammation and/or incisional surgery.261 A case report256 documents an anterior uveitis rate as high as 4.9%, although no increase was found in PGA-treated subjects with anterior uveitis compared with those not on PGA treatment.259 No increase in uveitic relapse rates were found when latanoprost was compared with FCDT (P = 0.21).263 Fluorophotometry and laser-flare cell meters have failed to detect an effect of latanoprost on aqueous flare intensity.170

Herpes simplex keratitis

Positive_regulation (activate) of phospholipase II in anterior associated with inflammation, herpetic keratitis, uveitis, recurrence and iritis
10) Confidence 0.02 Published 2010 Journal Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) Section Body Doc Link PMC2915861 Disease Relevance 1.71 Pain Relevance 0.23
This process is of great importance in chronic rhinosinusitis/nasal polyposis because increase of intracellular calcium may induce the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 leading to the production of leukotrienes and other pro-inflammatory lipid mediators again contributing to the chronic inflammatory process observed in these diseases.
Positive_regulation (activation) of phospholipase in nasal associated with inflammation, chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps and disease
11) Confidence 0.02 Published 2006 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1481584 Disease Relevance 1.29 Pain Relevance 0.32
The potential mechanism of drug-induced sarcolemmal injury is presumably due to changes in the viscosity of sarcolemma caused by activation of phospholipase A.
Positive_regulation (activation) of phospholipase associated with injury
12) Confidence 0.01 Published 2005 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC1175909 Disease Relevance 1.20 Pain Relevance 0.08
As expected, glucose levels were higher in both hyperglycemic groups and in patients with normoglycemia, whereas serum insulin and A1C were elevated in the DM group, with no difference between the HG and NG groups (Table 1).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of A1C
13) Confidence 0.01 Published 2008 Journal Diabetes Care Section Body Doc Link PMC2494657 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.09
In general, opioids have been found to inhibit neuronal excitability via two mechanisms: inhibition of calcium and enhancement of potassium conductance [20,21], besides, upon activation, a variety of signal transduction processes are induced with different mechanisms noticeable in diverse cell types such as activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and the phospholipase C mediated cascade.
Positive_regulation (activation) of phospholipase in neuronal associated with neuronal excitability and opioid
14) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Reprod Biol Endocrinol Section Body Doc Link PMC2901311 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0.64
P2X receptors are co-expressed with several classes of metabotropic receptors that regulate phosphoinositide levels through the activation of PI3K or phospholipase C in non-peptidergic DRG nociceptors.
Positive_regulation (activation) of phospholipase in nociceptors associated with dorsal root ganglion and nociceptor
15) Confidence 0.01 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2734547 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.55
In addition, preemptive transfusion therapy was effective in preventing ACS in a small number of SCD patients with elevated plasma secretory phospholipase A2 levels, an early sign of ACS [24].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of phospholipase in plasma associated with sickle cell anemia and acute chest syndrome
16) Confidence 0.01 Published 2010 Journal Advances in Hematology Section Body Doc Link PMC2872757 Disease Relevance 1.59 Pain Relevance 0.18

General Comments

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