INT52693

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1995
Last Reported 2011
Negated 2
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 57
Total Number 61
Disease Relevance 25.51
Pain Relevance 21.18

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

lipid binding (Ptgs2) nuclear envelope (Ptgs2) oxidoreductase activity (Ptgs2)
endoplasmic reticulum (Ptgs2) nucleus (Ptgs2) enzyme binding (Ptgs2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
microglia 14
spinal cord 12
PGE2 8
DRG 7
neuronal 6
Ptgs2 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 165 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
COX2 49 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal nerve ligature 10 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory response 19 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 66 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
cOX1 8 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 30 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 29 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 25 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 55 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
INFLAMMATION 224 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 148 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 11 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Shock 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Colon Cancer 14 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Ulcers 8 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Colitis 4 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Glioma 2 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 122 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 8 99.16 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
CONCLUSIONS: Intraprostatic capsaicin injection activates cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the prostate, and spinal sensory and motor neurons, and it induces prostatic pain.
Positive_regulation (activates) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in motor neurons
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2008 Journal J. Urol. Section Body Doc Link 18554636 Disease Relevance 0.11 Pain Relevance 0
Inflammation in the latter group was confirmed histologically and by a threefold increase in tissue levels of the granulocyte marker myeloperoxidase and was also associated with overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the stomach.
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in stomach associated with inflammation
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2000 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11093953 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.15
Unexpectedly, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin and 6-methoxy naphthalene acetic acidic, which inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymatic activity and abrogate prostanoid synthesis, caused a moderate but consistent up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 associated with inflammation and cinod
3) Confidence 0.66 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.25
Exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which elevates the cAMP level in microglial cells, also increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and production of thromboxane in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in microglial cells
4) Confidence 0.66 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.21
Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cultured microglia by prostaglandin E2, cyclic AMP and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Positive_regulation (Up-regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in microglia associated with inflammation, cinod and cox2
5) Confidence 0.66 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.19
Exogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which elevates the cAMP level in microglial cells, also increased the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and production of thromboxane in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in microglial cells
6) Confidence 0.66 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.21
The present study shows that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostanoid production in cultured rat microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide is up-regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), as indicated by experiments performed in the presence of adenylyl cyclase activators, cAMP analogues and protein kinase A-specific inhibitors.
Positive_regulation (up-regulated) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in microglia
7) Confidence 0.66 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.15
Endotoxin (2 mg/kg i.p.) induced the expression of interleukin-1beta, cyclooxygenase-2, and membrane bound prostaglandin E synthase messenger RNA in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and skin as determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Spec (determined) Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in spinal cord associated with spinal cord
8) Confidence 0.62 Published 2003 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12617945 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.28
In J774 cells, the inhibition of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) and NO(2)(-) production by roxithromycin and erythromycin was not dependent on direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity because it appears to be related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression.
Positive_regulation (inducible) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2
9) Confidence 0.56 Published 2000 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 10604943 Disease Relevance 0.60 Pain Relevance 0.19
Both forskolin, a protein kinase A activator, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, have previously been shown to induce PGHS-2 mRNA in MC3T3-E1 cells, but in the present study only PMA induced PGHS-2 expression in Py1a cells.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PGHS-2 in MC3T3-E1 associated with kinase c
10) Confidence 0.56 Published 1995 Journal J. Bone Miner. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7785462 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.33
Botulinum toxin A pretreatment could inhibit capsaicin induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression from the peripheral organ to the L6 spinal cord and inhibit prostatic pain and inflammation.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in spinal cord
11) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal J. Urol. Section Body Doc Link 18554636 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Cisplatin administration also caused a significant increase in cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression at 72 h after administration, which was blunted by dexamethasone, but not by meloxicam.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA associated with dexamethasone
12) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18534574 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.47
These results demonstrate that induction of colitis results in a rapid increase in prostaglandin D(2) synthesis via cyclooxygenase-2.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of cyclooxygenase-2 associated with colitis
13) Confidence 0.48 Published 2000 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10898767 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.26
To investigate the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 on the formalin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in spinal cord associated with antagonist, dorsal horn and spinal cord
14) Confidence 0.48 Published 2004 Journal Sheng Li Xue Bao Section Abstract Doc Link 14985832 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.29
[MK-801 inhibits formalin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats].
Positive_regulation (-) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn, cox2 and spinal cord
15) Confidence 0.48 Published 2004 Journal Sheng Li Xue Bao Section Title Doc Link 14985832 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.43
APW also showed a significant inhibitory effect in LPS-induced PGE2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in PGE2
16) Confidence 0.48 Published 2003 Journal Arch. Pharm. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 14723341 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.22
The observations that the lipopolysaccharide-induced prostanoid production was specifically increased by 11-deoxy-16,16-dm PGE2, a selective agonist at the PGE2 receptor EP2 coupled to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, and that the enhancing effect of PGE2 was partially prevented by specific inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A, suggest that the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by PGE2 is mediated by cAMP, through a putative microglial EP2 receptor.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in PGE2 associated with agonist
17) Confidence 0.48 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.27
In conclusion, while the strong up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by exogenous PGE2 appears to be mediated by EP2 receptors and cAMP, the limited down-regulation caused by anti-inflammatory drug treatments may be either due to arachidonic acid metabolites other than PGE2, or to PGE2 itself, acting through a distinct cAMP-independent signalling pathway.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in PGE2 associated with inflammation
18) Confidence 0.48 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.25
The present study shows that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostanoid production in cultured rat microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide is up-regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP), as indicated by experiments performed in the presence of adenylyl cyclase activators, cAMP analogues and protein kinase A-specific inhibitors.
Positive_regulation (up-regulated) of Gene_expression (production) of cyclooxygenase-2 in microglia
19) Confidence 0.44 Published 1997 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9182946 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.15
In vitro studies have suggested that iAs can modulate the activity of macrophages producing an over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and resulting in an increase in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) concentrations in endothelial cells.
Positive_regulation (over-expression) of Gene_expression (expression) of cyclooxygenase-2 in endothelial cells
20) Confidence 0.42 Published 2008 Journal Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18329681 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.47

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