INT5573

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Context Info
Confidence 0.59
First Reported 1980
Last Reported 2010
Negated 6
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 113
Total Number 116
Disease Relevance 21.83
Pain Relevance 64.66

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 29
nucleus 18
neurons 12
caudate-putamen 10
brain 8
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 522 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 107 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 87 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 52 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 50 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 26 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
depression 10 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 79 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 43 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 37 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 55 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 25 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 14 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypotension 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Absence Epilepsy 2 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 76 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 8 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 8 99.70 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In females, ovariectomy decreased PENK gene expression in PVN and VMN. delta9-THC administration increased PENK gene expression in castrated females, but had no effect in the oestradiol-replaced group.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in VMN
1) Confidence 0.59 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Compared with control animals, rats that had been exposed to Ensure(R) had significantly reduced enkephalin gene expression in several striatal regions including the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), a finding that was confirmed in a different group with Northern blot analysis.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in ventral associated with nucleus accumbens and enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.59 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 14622160 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.64
In contrast, a group II mGluR agonist (2R,4R-APDC) administered intrastriatally reduced neither PENK expression nor the above-mentioned parkinsonian-like symptoms.
Neg (nor) Negative_regulation (reduced) of Neg (neither) Gene_expression (expression) of PENK associated with parkinson's disease and agonist
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 2007 Journal Amino Acids Section Abstract Doc Link 16699817 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.42
Intrastriatal injection of this compound reduced the striatal PENK expression induced by haloperidol.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 2007 Journal Amino Acids Section Abstract Doc Link 16699817 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.41
To test whether decreases in ENK protein expression were mirrored by decreases in gene expression, Northern blot analysis of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA was conducted in tissue samples obtained through the medulla, a brainstem area that contains the major opioid afferents to the LC.
Spec (whether) Negative_regulation (decreases) of Gene_expression (expression) of ENK protein in brainstem associated with medulla, locus ceruleus and opioid
5) Confidence 0.58 Published 2000 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11102471 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.56
Intrinsic GABA neurons inhibit proenkephalin gene expression in slice cultures of rat neostriatum.
Negative_regulation (inhibit) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in neurons associated with gaba and enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.57 Published 2002 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 11982623 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.57
This increase in PPE mRNA levels was not affected by ODN treatment, suggesting that the reduction of enkephalin expression was mainly due to physical blockade of PPE mRNA translation and not to its degradation.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.57 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9449413 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.47
Phenidone blocks the increases of proenkephalin and prodynorphin gene expression induced by kainic acid in rat hippocampus: involvement of Fos-related antigene protein.
Negative_regulation (blocks) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in hippocampus associated with enkephalin and hippocampus
8) Confidence 0.57 Published 1998 Journal Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 9519284 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.41
Three experimental interventions were utilized: inhibition of opioid receptors with naloxone, decrease of adrenal enkephalin production with chronic adrenal medullectomy, and treatment of adrenal demedullated animals with the synthetic enkephalin analog, D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol-enkephalin (DAGO).
Negative_regulation (decrease) of Gene_expression (production) of enkephalin associated with narcan, enkephalin and opioid receptor
9) Confidence 0.57 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1504767 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.87
In contrast to the decrease in enkephalin and substance P mRNA expression, somatostatin mRNA-expressing neurons were largely preserved.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of Gene_expression (expression) of enkephalin in neurons associated with somatostatin, enkephalin and substance p
10) Confidence 0.57 Published 1994 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 7523600 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.38
The possibility arises that there may be altered relationships between glutamatergic and enkephalin synapses, since the dorsolateral striatum, where preproenkephalin messenger RNA expression is acutely reduced, receives innervation by the affected ipsilateral cortical region.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in synapses associated with enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.56 Published 2000 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 10670452 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.25
RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to VPA decreased proenkephalin mRNA expression in the dorsal striatum and the nucleus accumbens but not in the central nucleus of the amygdala.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin mRNA in nucleus accumbens
12) Confidence 0.56 Published 2007 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Body Doc Link 17497229 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
However, calphostin C (a PKC inhibitor) and or SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) partially but significantly reduced C2 ceramide-induced proENK mRNA expression as well as phospho-CREB level.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of proENK mRNA
13) Confidence 0.52 Published 2001 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 11382404 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Striatal muscarinic receptor antagonism reduces 24-h food intake in association with decreased preproenkephalin gene expression.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin gene associated with enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.51 Published 2005 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Title Doc Link 16367789 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.43
Perinatal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure reduces proenkephalin gene expression in the caudate-putamen of adult female rats.
Negative_regulation (reduces) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in caudate-putamen associated with enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.51 Published 1998 Journal Life Sci. Section Title Doc Link 9734704 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.65
In summary, perinatal exposure to delta9-THC exposure decreased proenkephalin gene expression in the caudate-putamen of adult rats, although this effect exhibited a marked sexual dimorphism since it was only seen in females.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in caudate-putamen
16) Confidence 0.51 Published 1998 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9734704 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.54
In cultures of dissociated interneurons, the mGluRI antagonists LY367385 and MPEP reduced the increase in phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB induced by NMDA as well as the expression of the proenkephalin (PEnk) gene.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in interneurons associated with antagonist
17) Confidence 0.51 Published 2006 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Abstract Doc Link 16407481 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.44
Food cues elicit striatal hnPENK expression
Negative_regulation (elicit) of Gene_expression (expression) of hnPENK
18) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal BMC Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1868707 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Appreciable expression of hnPENK was limited to the striatum (Figure 7).
Negative_regulation (limited) of Gene_expression (expression) of hnPENK in striatum
19) Confidence 0.51 Published 2007 Journal BMC Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1868707 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
When added to the incubation medium, leukotriene E4 (10-1000 nmol/l) diminished in a dose-dependent manner the basal and TPA-induced expression of the proenkephalin gene.
Negative_regulation (diminished) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene
20) Confidence 0.50 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8774948 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08

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