INT5595

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1981
Last Reported 2010
Negated 11
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 223
Total Number 227
Disease Relevance 48.37
Pain Relevance 130.14

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Pdyn) plasma membrane (Pdyn)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 23
neurons 17
nucleus accumbens 15
hippocampus 9
substantia nigra 7
Pdyn (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dynorphin 658 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 360 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 201 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 194 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 119 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 65 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 22 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 16 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Convulsion 97 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 12 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 49 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperphagia 8 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Cocaine Dependence 6 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 44 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 10 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 13 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 41 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 107 99.68 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Cocaine also produced a significant increase in PDYN mRNA in the caudate putamen, whereas GBR12909 has no effect and the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor fluoxetine decreases PDYN mRNA in the same brain region.
Positive_regulation (increase) of PDYN mRNA in caudate putamen associated with serotonin, fluoxetine and cocaine
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2004 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15306127 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.60
Acute and repeated morphine administration (14 days, increasing doses, 20-100 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the level of alpha-neoendorphin in the nucleus accumbens after 3 h; a similar effect was observed at 24 and 48 h after the last chronic morphine injection.
Positive_regulation (increased) of alpha-neoendorphin in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens and morphine
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 9045086 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.24
The tissue level of alpha-neoendorphin was elevated at 3 h, and was back to normal at 24 and 48 h after the last drug injection.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of alpha-neoendorphin
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1996 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 9045086 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.22
Twenty four hours after pentetrazole injection the hippocampal level of alpha-neoendorphin was elevated (by c. 33%) and remained unchanged after 3 and 72 h.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of alpha-neoendorphin
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 1992 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 1465197 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.07
The lesions cause an increase in proenkephalin mRNA levels which was higher in the caudate-putamen than in the nucleus accumbens and tend to be reversible.
Positive_regulation (increase) of proenkephalin mRNA in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens
5) Confidence 0.70 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1312205 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.25
A smaller increase in the levels of proenkephalin mRNA of about 20% was observed in the nucleus accumbens after 2 weeks and no significant alteration could be observed 4 and 8 weeks after lesioning.
Positive_regulation (increase) of proenkephalin mRNA in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1312205 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.16
After 2 weeks a 60% increase of the levels of proenkephalin mRNA in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen was observed which declined to 20% above control after 8 weeks.
Positive_regulation (increase) of proenkephalin mRNA in caudate-putamen
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 1992 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1312205 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
Lesions of the substantia nigra caused a dramatic ipsilateral increase in the hybridization signal for proenkephalin mRNA, but no change was observed in the hybridization signal for prodynorphin mRNA.
Positive_regulation (increase) of proenkephalin mRNA in substantia nigra associated with substantia nigra
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 1989 Journal J. Mol. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2561993 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
Since destruction of the mesostriatal dopamine system elevates the levels of proenkephalin mRNA, but not of prodynorphin mRNA, in the striatal target neurons, it appears that the mesostriatal pathway exerts a tonic and selective suppression of striatal proenkephalin gene expression at the mRNA level.
Positive_regulation (elevates) of proenkephalin mRNA in neurons associated with dopamine
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 1989 Journal J. Mol. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2561993 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
Since destruction of the mesostriatal dopamine system elevates the levels of proenkephalin mRNA, but not of prodynorphin mRNA, in the striatal target neurons, it appears that the mesostriatal pathway exerts a tonic and selective suppression of striatal proenkephalin gene expression at the mRNA level.
Positive_regulation (elevates) of prodynorphin mRNA in neurons associated with dopamine
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 1989 Journal J. Mol. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2561993 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
Increased prodynorphin mRNA was observed at the earliest time-point studied (50 h) and the lowest dose (10 mg/kg/day) of cocaine tested and persisted through the 14 day period studied.
Positive_regulation (Increased) of prodynorphin mRNA associated with cocaine
11) Confidence 0.69 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7694032 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.35
'Binge' cocaine administration induces a sustained increase of prodynorphin mRNA in rat caudate-putamen.
Positive_regulation (increase) of prodynorphin mRNA in caudate-putamen associated with enkephalin and cocaine
12) Confidence 0.69 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 7694032 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.45
Our data demonstrated significantly increased levels of PDyn mRNA and phospho-Thr-34 DARPP-32 and significantly decreased phospho-Thr-75 DARPP-32 in LID rats compared with control and l-dopa treated groups.
Positive_regulation (increased) of PDyn mRNA associated with dyskinesias
13) Confidence 0.69 Published 2007 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 17884291 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.09
EA significantly (P<0.05) attenuated this hyperalgesia, as shown by increased PWL and PWPT, and inhibited up-regulation of preprodynorphin mRNA and dynorphin compared to sham control.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of preprodynorphin mRNA associated with hyperalgesia, dynorphin and electroacupuncture
14) Confidence 0.69 Published 2008 Journal Eur J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 18221900 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 1.61
EA significantly (P<0.05) attenuated this hyperalgesia, as shown by increased PWL and PWPT, and inhibited up-regulation of preprodynorphin mRNA and dynorphin compared to sham control.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of dynorphin associated with hyperalgesia, dynorphin and electroacupuncture
15) Confidence 0.69 Published 2008 Journal Eur J Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 18221900 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 1.62
It has been shown that chronic cocaine increases prodynorphin mRNA in the caudate putamen and decreases it in the hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (increases) of prodynorphin mRNA in hypothalamus associated with cocaine
16) Confidence 0.69 Published 2007 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 17055175 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.62
Chronic administration of haloperidol (2.4 mg/kg/day for 7 days) increased the levels of proenkephalin mRNA in both striatum and nucleus accumbens.
Positive_regulation (increased) of proenkephalin mRNA in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens
17) Confidence 0.69 Published 1988 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 3041310 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
In situ hybridization analysis revealed that levels of the PDYN mRNA were significantly increased in the caudate/putamen, to the same extent in rats self-administering cocaine as in animals receiving noncontingent injections of the drug at the same frequency and dosage.
Positive_regulation (increased) of PDYN mRNA in putamen associated with cocaine
18) Confidence 0.69 Published 2006 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 16412997 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.51
Six hours after functional challenge by injection of D-amphetamine (8 mg/kg s.c.), prenatally vehicle-exposed rats exhibited increased preprodynorphin mRNA (ROD) levels in caudate putamen (dorsolateral 187%, dorsomedial 150%, ventrolateral 153%, ventromedial 140% of control), nucleus accumbens (142%) and olfactory tubercle (213%).
Positive_regulation (increased) of preprodynorphin in olfactory tubercle associated with nucleus accumbens
19) Confidence 0.69 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9027410 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
After 100 days of the high dose exposure, the patch/striosome compartment remained activated, but an increase in PDYN mRNA levels was also evident in the sensorimotor-connected matrix compartment of the caudate.
Positive_regulation (increase) of PDYN mRNA
20) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12786988 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.37

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