INT57368

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Context Info
Confidence 0.50
First Reported 1994
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 5
Reported most in Body
Documents 39
Total Number 46
Disease Relevance 42.23
Pain Relevance 5.01

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
nervous system 2
brain 1
median nerve 1
PFC 1
ADHD1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 982 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 155 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 60 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
magnetoencephalography 24 98.38 Very High Very High Very High
fluoxetine 26 98.34 Very High Very High Very High
positron emission tomography 26 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 170 94.48 High High
imagery 54 94.08 High High
Clonidine 57 91.60 High High
Neurobehavioral 25 91.40 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 6549 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Mental Disorders 208 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Attention Deficit And Disruptive Behavior Disorders 143 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Lifespan 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Epilepsy 74 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Affective Disorder 82 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Dependence 534 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 304 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Tics 161 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Antisocial Personality Disorder 32 99.28 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
However, each affected ADHD individual must have inherited enough gene variants to pass a liability threshold, allowing them to develop ADHD.


Regulation (affected) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
1) Confidence 0.50 Published 2005 Journal Theor Biol Med Model Section Body Doc Link PMC1352384 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0
Despite these limitations, our results suggest that risperidone monotherapy may have modest beneficial effects in controlling ADHD symptoms in youth with bipolar disorder.



Regulation (controlling) of ADHD associated with manic depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
2) Confidence 0.39 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2515893 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0
As discussed by Godfrey and Rostain, when choosing a medication for treating adults with ADHD, important considerations are the control of symptoms throughout the working day with a regimen that may enhance adherence, and a formulation that can minimize the possible misuse of the medication.13,14 The osmotic controlled-release technology of the once-daily OROS methylphenidate formulation achieves a rapid onset of effect and delivers methylphenidate in a controlled manner for approximately 12 hours, thereby allowing extended coverage of symptoms during the day.19,32 In addition, the physical properties of the OROS mechanism of delivery reduce the risk of possible methylphenidate substance abuse.33
Regulation (choosing) of ADHD associated with drug abuse and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
3) Confidence 0.39 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2747385 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.04
Disruption in the PFC and its projections to other brain structures can cause distractibility, inattention, impairment in memory, and impulsivity, the core symptoms of ADHD.82
Regulation (cause) of ADHD in PFC associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
4) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697545 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0.08
The primary outcome measure was change in ADHD-RS-IV, which consists of 18 items designed to reflect and assess current ADHD symptomatology.79
Regulation (change) of ADHD-RS associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
5) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697545 Disease Relevance 1.14 Pain Relevance 0.06
In one study, depressive symptoms contributed significantly to the degree of sleep disturbance when controlling for ADHD diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment [136].
Regulation (controlling) of ADHD associated with depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
6) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC3012210 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0
Treatment of ADHD comorbid disorders
Regulation (Treatment) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
7) Confidence 0.36 Published 2005 Journal Theor Biol Med Model Section Body Doc Link PMC1352384 Disease Relevance 1.33 Pain Relevance 0.27
Psychostimulants, especially amphetamines, were the most effective treatment for hyperactivity syndromes in children from the 1930s until methylphenidate (RitalinĀ®) received FDA approval in 1968.45 Since its introduction, methylphenidate has become the most prescribed medication for ADHD treatment in children and adults.33
Regulation (medication) of ADHD associated with syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
8) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2732009 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.26
There were only three questions we could confidently analyse to monitor change in ADHD symptoms which makes it difficult to compare these results to those of other treatment studies for ADHD carried out in research environments.
Spec (analyse) Regulation (change) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
9) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2954995 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0
The requirement for a longer duration of activity in adults, requires repetitive dosing with immediate release stimulants, of between three to four doses in most cases, and more often in others, to avoid rebound symptoms and for adequate control of ADHD symptoms during the day and evening [148,270].
Regulation (control) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
10) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2942810 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.03
In terms of treatment, stimulants are by far the best studied and most effective treatment for ADHD across the lifespan, yet their use in some parts of Europe remains controversial in children and more widely across Europe in adults.
Regulation (controversial) of ADHD associated with lifespan and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
11) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2942810 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0
The short half life of the medications suggest that it is more practical to consider maximum dose in terms of the maximum taken at each time point, the length of the effect of each dose on the control of ADHD symptoms, and the number of doses required to provide symptom control throughout the day; rather than a maximum based only on mg/kg per day.
Regulation (control) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
12) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2942810 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0
A full review of psychological approaches for ADHD throughout the lifespan has recently be published by Young and colleagues [240]

Prognosis and costs

Regulation (colleagues) of ADHD associated with lifespan and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
13) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2942810 Disease Relevance 1.28 Pain Relevance 0.04
Thus, any pharmacological treatment that is effective on the core symptoms of ADHD and executive functioning can also be expected to improve the emotional regulation and thus the emotional well-being of patients with ADHD.
Regulation (effective) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
14) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health Section Body Doc Link PMC2430545 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0
We previously reported that an elimination diet had a statistically significant and clinically relevant effect on ADHD symptoms as reported by both parents and teachers, with effect sizes of 2.1 and 2.5, respectively [31].
Regulation (effect) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
15) Confidence 0.32 Published 2010 Journal Eur J Pediatr Section Body Doc Link PMC2908441 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0
Drug therapy is effective for all age groups, even preschoolers, and for late-onset ADHD in adults.
Regulation (effective) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
16) Confidence 0.31 Published 2009 Journal Pharmacotherapy Section Abstract Doc Link 19476419 Disease Relevance 1.20 Pain Relevance 0.11
In order to better clarify all of the problems that may affect adults with ADHD, it is recommended that every psychotherapy treatment contain a psychoeducational component.
Spec (may) Regulation (affect) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
17) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2518387 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.10
However, in one child study which compared the efficacy of immediate-release and extended-release amphetamine formulations, dextroamphetamine sustained release were significantly more effective at controlling ADHD symptoms than short-acting formulations during the afternoon and in the early evening (James et al 2001).
Regulation (controlling) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
18) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2515906 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0
However, in one child study which compared the efficacy of immediate-release and extended-release amphetamine formulations, dextroamphetamine sustained release were significantly more effective at controlling ADHD symptoms than short-acting formulations during the afternoon and in the early evening (James et al 2001).
Regulation (controlling) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
19) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2518387 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0
In order to better clarify all of the problems that may affect adults with ADHD, it is recommended that every psychotherapy treatment contain a psychoeducational component.
Spec (may) Regulation (affect) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
20) Confidence 0.28 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2515906 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.10

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