INT5851

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 6
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 52
Total Number 58
Disease Relevance 14.57
Pain Relevance 25.05

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
caudate-putamen 20
striatum 14
hippocampus 8
PVN 6
hypothalamus 6
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 105 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 25 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 24 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 11 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 9 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Delta opioid receptors 3 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 16 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 6 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 5 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 17 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 16 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction 8 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 10 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 26 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Coronary Heart Disease 1 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 8 98.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 9 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
Convulsion 4 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 3 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 9 97.40 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Activation of mouse T-helper cells induces abundant preproenkephalin mRNA synthesis.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Gene_expression (synthesis) of preproenkephalin mRNA in T-helper cells associated with enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1986 Journal Science Section Title Doc Link 2938259 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
These results suggest that Fos is not necessary for activation of the PENK gene expression, produced by chronic haloperidol application, in the striatum.
Positive_regulation (activation) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in striatum
2) Confidence 0.69 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The aim of the study was to determine whether the haloperidol-produced induction of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (cause) of Gene_expression (expression) of striatal proenkephalin in striatum
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Stimulation of normal animals at low intensities enhances preproenkephalin expression in a bimodal temporal pattern.
Positive_regulation (enhances) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin
4) Confidence 0.69 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.33
Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in caudate-putamen associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra, cannabinoid and withdrawal
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12641731 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.83
Using in situ hybridization and northern blot analysis, we found that the KD significantly decreases the level of PENK gene expression induced by KA of the granular cells in the hippocampus.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in hippocampus associated with hippocampus
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.24
The slow increase in PEnk gene expression caused by NMDA resembled a recruiting process.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of PEnk gene
7) Confidence 0.63 Published 1999 Journal Cereb. Cortex Section Abstract Doc Link 10426412 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
The aim of the study was to determine whether the haloperidol-produced induction of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in striatum
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in caudate-putamen associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra, cannabinoid and withdrawal
9) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12641731 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.83
Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in caudate-putamen associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra, cannabinoid and withdrawal
10) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12641731 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.85
Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in caudate-putamen associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra, cannabinoid and withdrawal
11) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12641731 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.83
Thus the proximal 1.4 kb of the murine ENK promoter region is sufficient for organ-specificity of ENK gene expression when targeted to a safe-haven genomic locus.
Positive_regulation (sufficient) of Gene_expression (expression) of ENK gene in proximal
12) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12562513 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.06
Herpesvirus-mediated transfer of the human preproenkephalin gene to primary afferent nociceptors prevents phasic thermal allodynia/hyperalgesia in mice.
Positive_regulation (transfer) of Gene_expression (transfer) of preproenkephalin gene in nociceptors associated with hyperalgesia, allodynia and nociceptor
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2004 Journal Mol. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 14741774 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.98
Increases in striatal preproenkephalin gene expression are associated with nigrostriatal damage but not L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in the squirrel monkey.
Positive_regulation (Increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin associated with enkephalin and dyskinesias
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Title Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.10
The neuronal excitation caused by KA leads to increases in the expression of a variety of genes, including immediate-early genes and opioid peptides derived from proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN).
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in neuronal associated with opioid
15) Confidence 0.48 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.17
In the present study, we examined the effect of the KD on the increase of PENK, Fos, Jun, AP-1 DNA-binding activity and JNK gene expression induced by KA in the mouse hippocampus.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in hippocampus associated with hippocampus
16) Confidence 0.48 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.24
In the present study, we examined the effect of the KD on the increase of PENK, Fos, Jun, AP-1 DNA-binding activity and JNK gene expression induced by KA in the mouse hippocampus.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in hippocampus associated with hippocampus
17) Confidence 0.48 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.24
The aim of the study was to determine whether the haloperidol-produced induction of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration.
Spec (whether) Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of striatal proenkephalin in striatum
18) Confidence 0.47 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
High intensity stimulation is effective only at later time points in normal animals, but it causes both early and late effects on preproenkephalin expression when applied to animals neonatally lesioned with capsaicin.
Positive_regulation (causes) of Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin associated with qutenza
19) Confidence 0.46 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.36
The regulation and possible function of the preproenkephalin gene in testis were studied in vivo in transgenic mice containing: (1) bases -193 to +210 of the human proenkephalin gene and an additional one kilobase of 3' proenkephalin flanking sequence driving expression of bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), and (2) the same promoter and flanking sequences driving expression of a rat proenkephalin cDNA.
Positive_regulation (driving) of Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in testis associated with targeted disruption
20) Confidence 0.44 Published 1994 Journal Mol. Reprod. Dev. Section Abstract Doc Link 7917279 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.14

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