INT5852

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1982
Last Reported 2010
Negated 10
Speculated 5
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 167
Total Number 177
Disease Relevance 44.44
Pain Relevance 71.13

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 13
striatum 12
hypothalamus 8
nucleus accumbens 7
nucleus 6
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 684 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 221 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 182 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 167 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 132 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 77 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 54 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 18 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
INFLAMMATION 48 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 398 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 250 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 132 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Pox Virus Infection 3 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 165 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 4 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 786 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Opiate Addiction 11 99.12 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Activation of mouse T-helper cells induces abundant preproenkephalin mRNA synthesis.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of preproenkephalin mRNA in T-helper cells associated with enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 1986 Journal Science Section Title Doc Link 2938259 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
Using this mouse model, exploration of the mechanisms regulating expression of the proenkephalin gene in the mouse hypothalamus have begun.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in hypothalamus
2) Confidence 0.77 Published 1996 Journal NIDA Res. Monogr. Section Abstract Doc Link 8784844 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.29
Mechanisms regulating proenkephalin gene expression: contributions of transgenic models.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene associated with targeted disruption and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.77 Published 1996 Journal NIDA Res. Monogr. Section Title Doc Link 8784844 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.39
The aim of the study was to determine whether the haloperidol-produced induction of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in striatum
4) Confidence 0.77 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The aim of the study was to determine whether the haloperidol-produced induction of the c-fos gene in the mouse striatum is the cause of the increased expression of the striatal proenkephalin (PENK) gene after repeated haloperidol administration.
Gene_expression (expression) of striatal proenkephalin in striatum
5) Confidence 0.77 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These results suggest that Fos is not necessary for activation of the PENK gene expression, produced by chronic haloperidol application, in the striatum.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK gene in striatum
6) Confidence 0.77 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Soon after implantation, all three opioid receptor genes as well as POMC and PENK, but not PDYN, were detected in the uterine environment.
Gene_expression (detected) of PENK in uterine associated with opioid receptor
7) Confidence 0.77 Published 1998 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 9746745 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.49
While kappa and micro receptors were transiently expressed in the uterine myometrium (until embryonic day 8.5), substantial levels of PENK were continuously detected in this region until at least embryonic day 18.
Gene_expression (detected) of PENK in uterine
8) Confidence 0.77 Published 1998 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 9746745 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38
In addition, complementary expression of the micro receptor and PENK genes in the uterus was detected.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in uterus
9) Confidence 0.77 Published 1998 Journal Biol. Reprod. Section Abstract Doc Link 9746745 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38
Nucleus caudalis expression of preproenkephalin mRNA changes following lesions depleting small-caliber primary afferent fibers and after stimulation of trigeminal afferents at different intensities.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in Nucleus associated with primary afferent fibers
10) Confidence 0.77 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
Animals treated neonatally with capsaicin display reduced preproenkephalin gene expression in nucleus caudalis neurons.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in neurons associated with qutenza
11) Confidence 0.77 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.32
Transsynaptic regulation of preproenkephalin expression in pain-modulating areas of the nucleus caudalis of the trigeminal nerve thus depends on the specific type of primary afferent input.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin in trigeminal nerve associated with pain and fifth nerve
12) Confidence 0.77 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.37
High intensity stimulation is effective only at later time points in normal animals, but it causes both early and late effects on preproenkephalin expression when applied to animals neonatally lesioned with capsaicin.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin associated with qutenza
13) Confidence 0.77 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.36
Stimulation of normal animals at low intensities enhances preproenkephalin expression in a bimodal temporal pattern.
Gene_expression (expression) of preproenkephalin
14) Confidence 0.77 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.33
In situ hybridization analysis further demonstrated that proenkephalin gene expression in mutant (at/at) mice, which lack germ cells, was identical to that observed in the early prepubertal testis.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin gene in testis
15) Confidence 0.77 Published 1994 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 7925115 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Proenkephalin gene expression in testicular interstitial cells is down-regulated coincident with the appearance of pachytene spermatocytes.
Gene_expression (expression) of Proenkephalin gene in interstitial cells associated with enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.77 Published 1994 Journal Endocrinology Section Title Doc Link 7925115 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Gene_expression (expression) of proenkephalin in caudate-putamen associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra, cannabinoid and withdrawal
17) Confidence 0.77 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12641731 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.83
Spontaneous cannabinoid withdrawal produced time-related significant alterations in gene transcription: (i) decreased (20%) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area and increased (50%) in substantia nigra; (ii) increased proenkephalin (PENK) gene expression more than 100% in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and piriform cortex; (iii) increased (20-40%) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Gene_expression (expression) of PENK in caudate-putamen associated with nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmentum, substantia nigra, cannabinoid and withdrawal
18) Confidence 0.77 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12641731 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.82
These results suggest that conservation of the far-upstream DNA elements serves more subtle roles, such as the developmental or cell-specific expression of the ENK gene.
Gene_expression (expression) of ENK gene
19) Confidence 0.77 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12562513 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.05
To determine their role in conferring organ-specificity of ENK expression in mice and to circumvent the position effects from random gene insertion that are known to often frustrate such analysis in transgenic mice, we used a Cre-mediated gene knock-in strategy to target reporter constructs to a "safe haven" loxP-tagged locus in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene.
Gene_expression (expression) of ENK associated with targeted disruption
20) Confidence 0.77 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 12562513 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.10

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